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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| October-December  | Volume 2 | Issue 4  
    Online since January 9, 2017

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A Gold Nanoparticle-enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Aptasensor for the Detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene
Junpeng Tan, Bin Hao, Chuo Wang, Yifei Ren, Hongxia Hao, Ruiqin Yang
October-December 2016, 2(4):195-202
A gold nanoparticle-enhanced surface plasmon resonance (SPR) aptasensor was developed for high-specificity and high-sensitivity detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Self-assembly film-forming technology was used to modify the gold surface of the sensor chip with 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl glycine, a TNT analogue, using polyethylene glycol to which the thiol group and carboxyl group are attached. Aptamer-gold nanoparticle complexes were formed through Au-S bonding. To detect TNT, the samples were incubated with the aptamer-gold nanoparticle complexes, and the solution competition method was applied through the SPR aptasensor. The results showed that the SPR aptasensor achieved fast, real-time detection of TNT. This gold nanoparticle-enhanced SPR aptasensor is suitable for TNT detection in the field of public safety and environmental monitoring.
  4 3,302 500
The Relevant Physical Trace in Criminal Investigation
Durdica Hazard
October-December 2016, 2(4):208-212
A criminal investigation requires the forensic scientist to search and to interpret vestiges of a criminal act that happened in the past. The forensic scientist is one of the many stakeholders who take part in the information quest within the criminal justice system. She reads the investigation scene in search of physical traces that should enable her to tell the story of the offense/crime that allegedly occurred. The challenge for any investigator is to detect and recognize relevant physical traces in order to provide clues for investigation and intelligence purposes, and that will constitute sound and relevant evidence for the court. This article shows how important it is to consider the relevancy of physical traces from the beginning of the investigation and what might influence the evaluation process. The exchange and management of information between the investigation stakeholders are important. Relevancy is a dimension that needs to be understood from the standpoints of law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists with the aim of strengthening investigation and ultimately the overall judicial process.
  4 2,575 278
Estimation of Maximum Tibia Length from its Measured Anthropometric Parameters in a Nigerian Population
Esomonu Godfrey Ugochukwu, Lukpata Philip Ugbem, Omamuyovwi M Ijomone, Okem Theresa Ebi
October-December 2016, 2(4):222-228
Reliable estimation of stature from skeletal remains will continue to play an important role in assessing a variety of forensic anthropological and archaeological issues. In the present study, we studied and collated data on the morphometry of the tibia as well as analyzing its segment that shows significant correlation with its maximum length and consequently formulating linear regression equations for estimating maximum tibia length (MTL) which is specific for the Nigeria population. A total number of 68 intact adult human tibia bones were used (35 right and 33 left). Thirteen anthropometric parameters were measured including the MTL. The mean differences between right and left bones of all the measured parameter were not statistically significant except for the mean shaft circumference. The correlation coefficient between MTL and the bicondylar tibial width (BTW), anterior-posterior intercondylar diameter (APID), anterior-posterior diameter of medial condyle (APDMC), midshaft transverse diameter (MSTD), and distal articular surface length (DASL) were seen to be significant (P < 0.05) only in the right tibia; therefore, the linear regression equations for estimation of MTL from these parameters for the right tibia were also significant (P < 0.05). The results of our study concluded that it is possible to estimate the maximum length of the right tibia from the BTW, APID, APDMC, MSTD, and DASL with relative accuracy. Our study may be useful for forensic investigations for the identification of the remains of unknown bodies in a Nigerian population.
  1 3,634 279
Meta-analysis of the Association between Serotonin Transporter Polymorphisms and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Haojie Qin, Guohui Xu, Xinmin Pan, Yaonan Mo
October-December 2016, 2(4):179-184
The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene has been considered one of the risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), but the association remains unconfirmed. This meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively summarize the evidence for such a relationship. PubMed, EMBASE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for eligible studies within a range of published years from 1990 to December 2015. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the different associations. A total of 8 studies with 624 cases and 796 controls were included for 5-HTT promoter polymorphism, 5 studies with 418 cases and 542 controls for intron 2, and 3 studies with 253 cases and 334 controls for haplotype. The pooled examinations showed an overall increased SIDS risk for the 5-HTT promoter polymorphism (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.03–2.63, P = 0.035 for LL vs. LS and SS; OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.04–2.04, P = 0.028 for L vs. S), but no association (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.75–1.33, P = 0.994 for 10 + 9 carriers vs. 12/12; OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.79–1.19, P = 0.753 for 10 + 9 vs. 12) for intron 2 polymorphism, and an unreliable association (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.31–0.87, P = 0.013) for S-9 and S-10 haplotypes. This meta-analysis suggests that the L allele or LL homozygote of 5-HTT promoter polymorphism has an increased risk for SIDS, while intron 2 polymorphism has no association with SIDS.
  1 4,354 3,807
Evaluation of Medical Malpractice Litigations in China, 2002-2011
Tiantong Yang, Guozhong Zhang, Xu Wang, Shengli Di, Haidong Zhang, Daming Sun, Siyang Xiang, Dong Zhao, Lin Chang, Ling Li
October-December 2016, 2(4):185-189
In the past 10 years, medical malpractice litigations have become a serious public health and social issues in China. This study aims to evaluate the medical malpractice litigations in Beijing. A retrospective study was conducted using the database from the Key Laboratory of Evidence Science (KLES) at China University of Political Science and Law (CUPL) to demonstrate the extent and characteristics of the alleged medical malpractice cases and the conclusions of forensic evaluation from 2002 to 2011 in Beijing. A total of 1515 alleged medical malpractice cases were investigated by forensic medical experts at KLES-CUPL during the study period. Of the 1515 cases, 45.2% were male patients and 54.8% were female patients. The age of the patients ranged from newborn to 90 years, with average age of 44 years. The alleged medical malpractice cases involved 11.3% of newborns. From 2002 to 2006, the average number of medical malpractice litigations was 123 cases per year, while from 2007 to 2011, the average number of medical malpractice litigations was 180 per year, a 46% increase. Of the 1515 cases, 588 (38.8%) litigations were due to the patients' death. Clinical departments involved in claims most often were obstetrics (18.9%), followed by orthopedics (15.1%) and general surgery (11.5%). Medical error was found in 945 (62.4%) cases. Of the 945 confirmed medical malpractice cases, the top medical misadventures were diagnostic errors (36.5%), improper performance of procedures (36.4%), and medication error (12.6%). Although tertiary hospitals were more likely to be sued than the secondary and primary hospitals (63.6% vs. 36.4%), there was no significant difference between tertiary and secondary hospitals in the percentage of confirmed malpractice cases (62.3% vs. 59.4%). The primary hospitals had the highest confirmed malpractice cases (73.2%).
  1 2,941 1,744
The Consistencies of Y-Chromosomal and Autosomal Continental Ancestry Varying among Haplogroups
Chuan-Chao Wang, Lei Shang, Hui-Yuan Yeh, Lan-Hai Wei
October-December 2016, 2(4):229-232
The Y-chromosome has been widely used in ancestry inference based on its region-specific haplogroup distributions. However, there is always a debate on how informative such a single marker is for inferring an individual's genetic ancestry. Here, we compared genetic ancestry inferences at continental level made by Y-chromosomal haplogroups to those made by autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 1230 samples of Affymetrix Human Origins dataset. The highest ancestry proportions of a majority of individuals match the highest average continental-ancestry proportions in haplogroups A, B, D, H, I, K, L, T, O, and M. The high consistencies have not been observed in haplogroups E, C, G, J, N, Q, and R, but in some of their sublineages, such as E1a, E1b1a1, E1b1b1b1a, E2b1a, J1a2b, Q1a1a1, Q1a2a1a1, R1b1a2a1a, and R2. Although the consistencies of Y-chromosomal and autosomal continental ancestry vary among haplogroups, Y-chromosome could provide valuable clues for individual's continental ancestry.
  - 2,184 198
Evaluation and Examination of a Possible Shoe-polish Trace in a Hold-up Case
Line Gueissaz, Tacha Hicks, Cyril Muehlethaler, Geneviève Massonnet
October-December 2016, 2(4):233-244
In this article, we show how the Bayesian framework can be applied to a hold-up case involving a possible shoe-polish trace according to one of the parties. This article highlights the importance of interpreting data from the beginning of the examination through the preassessment steps. Once a set of alternative propositions in agreement with the information provided by the parties is chosen, one can establish what is needed in the case. Here, limited data were available to assign factors such as transfer and rarity of the traces. Consequently, we showed how specific case-tailored experiments provide meaningful data for evaluation. In this case, the police had observed a trace on the jacket of a person who reported to have been pushed with the offender's gun during the hold-up attempt. When the jacket was submitted to our laboratory, the exact nature of the trace was unknown. Particles from this trace were collected and analyzed by stereomicroscopy, microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The obtained results supported that this trace was waxy material. The literature dealing with the analysis of waxy materials generally uses solvent extraction-based methods. Here, as our analytical sequence allowed a good discrimination of different waxy products of known origin, we considered that this methodology was adequate. Moreover, it did not involve any extraction step that could lead to undesired compounds from the substrate (e.g., dyes and additives). This article therefore suggests an alternative analytical sequence for the analysis of such material in casework.
  - 2,463 228
Morphometric Analysis of Maxillary Central Incisor to Determine its Crown Form: A Model-based Cross-sectional Study
Jayasankar Purushothaman Pillai, Riddhi Patel, Alka Banker, J Rajarajeswari, Sukhdev Mishra
October-December 2016, 2(4):213-218
The size and shape of tooth crowns are morphogenetically predetermined during embryogenesis. The maxillary central incisors have contributed to sexual dimorphism, and several classifications of the form of maxillary central incisors are available in the literature. We, in the present study, aimed to analyze the mesiodistal (MD) measurements at two levels of maxillary central incisor, to determine its crown form. The study was conducted on 100 dental plaster models (50 males and 50 females). The MD dimensions at the contact area level MD_incisal (MD_I) and at the gingival papilla level (MD_G) and the gingivo-incisal height of the crown were measured in the dental models using digital Vernier caliper. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical software. The mean values of all the three parameters measured were slightly greater for males and also for the left central incisors. There were no significant differences in all the three variables when the right and left incisors were compared. Significant differences were noted when the parameters are compared between genders. The height/width ratio of crown showed a significant difference between male and female. The value of the ratio between the two MD dimensions (MD_I and MD_G) was used to determine the crown form. The ratio between the MD dimensions at incisal and gingival area showed a significant difference between genders and no such significance was found between right and left central incisors. There is a significant difference in the form of maxillary central incisors between male and female samples and not between right and left. The MD dimensions at incisal and gingival thirds decide the form of crown.
  - 2,788 305
Estimation of Stature from Percutaneous Tibia Length of Indigenes of Bekwara Ethnic Group of Cross River State, Nigeria
Ugochukwu Godfrey Esomonu, Lukpata Philip Ugbem, Ben-Abua M Donald
October-December 2016, 2(4):219-221
Estimating stature by developing linear regression equations which incorporate the features of fragmented body parts or human skeletal remains has been employed by many forensic anthropologists to establish the identity of victims of mass disaster although all formulas are ethnic, age, and gender specific. The study is aimed at using the percutaneous tibia length (PCTL) to deriving a specific regression equation formula which could be used to estimate the stature of adult indigenes of Bekwara ethnic group in Cross River State. A total number of 600 subjects within the age range of 21–45 years were recruited randomly for this research (300 males and 300 females). Observed height and PCTL were measured using the standard anthropometric technique, respectively. Stature was estimated from PCTL using simple regression analysis. On analysis of the data, the mean PCTL for male was found to be 43.60 ± 2.31 cm while that of female was 42.55 ± 2.83 cm. The observed height was 165.80 ± 6.88 cm and 156.70 ± 6.06 cm for male and female, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the male values of the measured parameters were significantly higher than the corresponding female values. The linear regression equations derived for male and female for the estimation of height using the PCTL was found to be 5.289 (PCTL) + (−64.78) and 4.230 (TL) + (−23.28), respectively. It was concluded that stature can be estimated using the length of an intact mutilated leg. Thus, the data of this study are recommended in anthropological studies for stature estimation among the ethnic group under study.
  - 2,073 231
Application of Spectra Accuracy for Analysis of Organic Explosive: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by AccuTOF-DART
Zhanfang Liu, Zhenwen Sun, Guannan Zhang, Jun Zhu, Hongcheng Mei, Haiyan Li, Bin Li, Jianzhong Xu, Hong Zhou
October-December 2016, 2(4):190-194
This paper, through mass spectrometric (MS) analysis for nitro compound explosives on a direct analysis in a real-time time-of-flight MS, indicates that even on a high-resolution MS with accurate mass measurement capabilities, there is no guarantee to obtain the unique molecular formula of a compound. By calculating spectra accuracy, highly accurate isotope pattern matching can be conducted to significantly improve performance of compound confirmation or identification.
  - 2,173 335
Detecting Latent Prints on Stone and Other Difficult Porous Surfaces via Indanedione/Zinc Chloride and Laser
Shiquan LIU, Zhongliang MI, Jian Wu, Brian Dalrymple
October-December 2016, 2(4):203-207
Lasers and alternate light sources have been recognized as effective tools for latent print detection for over three decades. Luminescence often increases friction ridge contrast to reveal impressions otherwise undetectable. Indanedione/zinc chloride excited by a forensic light source is widely recognized as an effective process for developing latent prints on porous surfaces. This study was designed to evaluate the use of a combination of luminescence excitation and indanedione with zinc chloride to detect latent prints on stones, bricks, and similar difficult porous surfaces. The wavelengths evaluated included 400 nm (violet), 447 nm (blue), 532 nm (green), and 645 nm (red). Latent prints were deposited on a variety of porous surfaces including bricks, cement stones, wood, and cotton fabric, all commonly encountered at crime scenes in China. The surfaces were examined using white light (light-emitting diode flashlight) and laser light sources separately, both before and after treatment with indanedione/zinc chloride. The goal of this study was to evaluate various light sources for their effectiveness in detecting impressions developed by indanedione/zinc chloride on difficult porous surfaces. Results indicated that latent prints on some brick and cement stone surfaces may be effectively detected using 532 nm laser excitation after indanedione/zinc chloride processing.
  - 2,613 292