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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2021
Volume 7 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-38

Online since Wednesday, March 24, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Virtual determination of sex: Estimating cut off value of digital metric traits of foramen magnum on three-dimensional computed tomography with receiver operating characteristic and logistic regression analysis p. 1
Harish Kumar S Agarwal, Pardaman Singh Setia, Suryamani Pandey
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_59_20  
Background: Radiological imaging plays a pivotal role in forensic anthropology. As have the imaging techniques advances, so have the digital skeletal measurements inched towards precision. Secular trends of the population keep on changing in modern times. Hence, finding the precise technique of bone measurement, with greater reproducibility, in modern population is always needed in making population specific biological profile. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of the foramen magnum measurement, obtained by three dimensional multi-detector computed tomography using volume rendering technique with the cut off value of each variable, in sex determination of an individual. Materials and Methods: Two metric traits, an antero-posterior diameter (APD) and transverse diameter (TD), were measured digitally in an analysis of 130 radiological images having equal proportion of male and female samples. Foramen magnum index and area of foramen magnum (Area by Radinsky's [AR], Area by Teixeira's [AT]) were derived from APD and TD. Results: Descriptive statistical analysis, using unpaired t-test, showed significant higher value in males in all the variables. Using Pearson correlation analysis, maximum correlation was observed between area (AT and AR r = 0.999) and between area and TD (AR r = 0.955 and AT r = 0.945 respectively). When used individually, TD had the highest predictive value (67.7%) for sex determination among all the parameters followed by AT (65.4%) and AR (64.6%). Cutoff value of variables TD,AR and AT were 29.9 mm, 841.80 mm2 and 849.70 mm2 respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve predicted male and female sex with 96.2% and 89.2% accuracy respectively. The overall accuracy of the model was 92.7%. Conclusion: Measurements from 3D CT using volume rendering technique were precise, and the application of logistic regression analysis predicted the sex with more accuracy.
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Morphometric analysis of foramen magnum in the determination of sex using computed tomography p. 9
Bashir Ahmad Wani, Nusrat Nazir, Rayees Ahmad Sheikh, Altaf Hussain Chalkoo, Tauseefa Jan
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_57_20  
Background: sex identification by morphological assessment of various bones of the skeleton had been one of the oldest approaches in forensic anthropology and medico-legal cases. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to make the morphometric measurements of the foramen magnum in determining the feasibility of sex determination using computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: The data for our study was obtained from 100 patients having CT scan of the head and neck region (Siemens Somatom 256 slice CT scanner) with 1mm contiguous axial scans using bone window settings (2000 HU with 400 HU in centre), scan time of one second and exposure parameters 140 kVp and 70mA. The different measurements taken include the antero-posterior (AP) diameter, transverse diameter and area of the foramen magnum. Results: There were 50 males and 50 females with the age range of 18 to 75 years. Males have a higher average value than females in all of the parameters measured on foramen magnum. By using Student's T-test, all the measured parameters showed significant difference between the sexes (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The expression of sexual dimorphism in the foramen magnum region shows significant difference between the sexes, therefore this area of the skull should be considered a useful area in the identification of sex.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Application of virtopsy in forensic pathology p. 14
Wang Yucong, Zhu Haibiao, Liu Ran, Zhang Haidong, Zhao Dong, Wang Xu, Yang Tiantong
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_67_20  
Virtopsy employs computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which are commonly used in clinical medicine, to determine the cause and manner of death. Virtopsy is a multidisciplinary technique that combines forensic medicine, pathology, radiology, computer graphics, biomechanics, and physics. Virtopsy is rapidly gaining importance in forensic science and has been extensively studied in several areas of forensic pathology. In this study, we reviewed domestic and international research on causes of death, traffic injuries, medical disputes, gunshot trauma, postmortem changes, and inference of time of death to discuss with colleagues the role of virtopsy in forensic pathology.
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Application of virtopsy in the police activities in China p. 24
Ligang Tang, Zhe Liu, Yan Xue, Leilei Zhang, Dongdong Zhao, Lijiang Diao, Yigang Zhang, Faming Teng, Peng Zhao
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_68_20  
This review summarizes the mode of application of virtual anatomy technology in the construction of a police system. Local public security organizations have explored the application modes of virtual anatomy construction, such as the multiparty co-construction mode, cooperation mode, and individual construction mode, and reviewed (1) the understanding of public security and application process of virtual anatomy; (2) the problems faced in the construction and application processes, such as those associated with support of human resources, equipment supplies and financial expenditure, the limitations of the technology itself, legal issues with application, shrinkage of the identification business, and appraiser-related problems; and (3) the prospect of application of virtopsy in public security systems.
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Prospective and practical significance of virtual autopsy laboratory p. 28
Yimeng Wang, Zhiming Chen, Gang Liu, Wanan Zhu, Wenxin Wang, Dandan Zhou, Weilong Chen, Yanbin Gao, Jun Yang, Feng Huang, Huimao Zhang, Guangchi Yu, Lijun Wang
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_72_20  
The virtual anatomy laboratory was jointly established by the Jilin Province Department of Public Security, Public Security Bureau of Changchun, Jilin University and Neusoft Medical Systems Co., Ltd. on December 30, 2019. Details of the laboratory construction, virtual autopsy process, case analysis, research and development, establishment of standards, application in teaching, and other aspects of the center are summarized in this paper. In addition, we expound the prospective and practical significance of the virtual anatomy laboratory. Based on computed tomography and magnetic resonance detection methods, the prospective applications of virtual anatomy in forensic identification are explored through the analyses of two real-life cases. Using information from traditional anatomy as the gold standard, this study expanded on and explored the application technology and scenarios of virtual anatomy in imaging, clinical diagnosis, and equipment manufacturing, among other fields. The four cooperating units have their strengths and will yield valuable scientific research results and social benefits.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Comparison of computed tomography imaging with traditional autopsy results p. 33
Yang Li, Yang Li, Bin Wu, Bin Wu, Yongbo Wu, Hongliang Zhu, Jian Wang, Jianjun Li, Guanglong He
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_70_20  
The role of computed tomography (CT) images in forensic identification has been widely recognized. Such images can provide an important basis for identification of the cause of death in complicated and difficult cases, including falls from a height, drowning, explosion and gunshot cases, traffic accidents, and sudden death. However, few reports have focused on the application of CT images in cases of death caused by sharp object injuries. Therefore, the CT images and autopsy findings were compared in a case of death caused by sharp object injuries to the chest and abdomen, and the importance of CT images in cases of death from common sharp object injuries is herein discussed.
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An unusual case of functional neurological disorders and psychogenic coma following physical assault: Clinical and medico-legal considerations p. 36
Fiorella Caputo, Rosario Barranco, Pietrantonio Ricci, Santo Gratteri, Francesca Maria Elena Frigiolini, Gabriele Rocca, Francesco Ventura
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_62_20  
Functional neurological disorders can have different clinical manifestations, including coma, in the setting of an unknown etiology. In this article, we present a case of a young man affected by intellectual disabilities who, after a physical assault reported serious neurological alterations and a functional coma. This case shows how a stressful psychophysical event can bring acute and variable neurological manifestations of functional significance to a victim with previous intellectual disabilities. Despite the growing interest in this field, research is still very limited and studies in this field could better explain the nature of the psychogenic coma. From a medico-legal point of view, problems of evaluation may emerge for these disorders emerge as a result of acute psycho-physical stress and without any detectable structural alterations.
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