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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2020
Volume 6 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 111-151

Online since Tuesday, January 5, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Comparison of “Normal” craniocerebral computed tomography of deceased and living individuals p. 111
Xiaofei Liu, Wenju Jin, Zhiyuan Xia, Lan Du, Chunsheng Li, Qing Chen, Li Liu
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_73_20  
To compare “normal” craniocerebral computed tomography (CT) of deceased and living individuals. Nineteen parameters of craniocerebral CT scans of 50 deceased and 50 living individuals that met specific filtering criteria were measured separately: The intensity (CT value) ratio of gray matter to white matter (GM/WM), maximum and minimum length of frontal horn of ventricle, transverse diameter of cerebral parenchyma, length of choroid plexus, maximum external diameter of body of lateral ventricle, maximum internal transverse diameter of cranium, length of cerebral longitudinal fissure, length between two calvarium, transverse and longitudinal diameter of the third and fourth ventricle, length of the cerebral longitudinal fissure, Hackman value, ventricular index (D/A), index of the somatic part of lateral ventricle (F/E), lateral ventricular body index (G/E), frontal horn index (G/A), and ventriculocranial ratio (VCR). The values of these 19 parameters for the deceased and living individuals were performed using statistical methods. There were significant statistic differences between deceased and living individuals in terms of eight craniocerebral CT parameters, including GM/WM, D/A, transverse diameter of the fourth ventricle, and length of the cerebral longitudinal fissure. The craniocerebral CT findings differ between deceased and living individuals. Knowledge of the normal postmortem craniocerebral CT parameters is key to correct postmortem craniocerebral radiopathological diagnosis.
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A preliminary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics study of rats ingested diazepam or clonazepam p. 117
Shiyong Fang, Jianxia Chen, Xinhua Dai, Yuzi Zheng, Hao Wu, Yingqiang Fu, Jian Li, Yi Ye, Linchuan Liao
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_29_20  
Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a sexual act in which the victim is unable to give or rescind consent due to alcohol or drug intoxication, which involved the abuse of benzodiazepines around the world. Conventional techniques used for the analysis of benzodiazepines have the limitation of short detection time window due to the rapid metabolism of these drugs in body. This study aimed to investigate the characteristic changes of metabolites in the blood of rats after ingesting diazepam/clonazepam through a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics method, allowing the indirect reveal of the rats ingested diazepam/clonazepam. First, we found that diazepam and clonazepam in the blood of rats could not be detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after 48 h of ingestion. Then, orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis regression models were, respectively, constructed to determine whether the rats ingested diazepam/clonazepam after 48 h. The results showed that 5 metabolites were found to be associated with diazepam exposure, and 7 metabolites were found to be associated with clonazepam exposure, which may be characterization for the evaluation of digestion of diazepam and clonazepam in rat.
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Stature estimation from body dimensions in Han population of Southern China p. 126
Lu-Yao Xu, Fan-Zhang Lei, Jie-Xuan Lin, Ling Song, Xin-Yu Li, Qi Wang
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_39_20  
Stature estimation is widely used for individual identification in forensic field. Previous studies have proposed several regression equations derived from a single population for this purpose. However, this may not be suitable for other populations because of different hereditary and environmental conditions. In this study, stature estimation equations for southern China Han population have been provided. The study was conducted on a sample population of 121 men and women aged 18–25 years. A total of 19 parameters, including stature, head, torso, and parts of upper limbs and lower limbs, were measured according to standard anthropometric procedures. Herein, the anterior superior spine–malleolus medialis line showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.817) and was the most reliable predictor (R2 = 0.667) in men, while the best predictor for women was total leg length (R2 = 0.746) with the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.863). The regression analysis results via multiple predictors showed a high accuracy in stature estimation. Moreover, the analysis of multiple regression predictors showed that the dimensions of lower limbs were more reliable for stature estimation compared to head, torso, and upper limb measurements. This study provided equations of stature estimation for southern China Han population which can be useful in cases of dismembered body.
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Evaluation of pedestrian–train fatalities in the State of Maryland: A 5-year retrospective study p. 135
Elvira Carias, Claire Hammerschmidt, Taylor Hall, Xiang Zhang, Rebecca Phipps, Ling Li
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_75_20  
Few studies have been done on the incidences of train-related pedestrian fatalities throughout the United States, with no previous studies reported in the State of Maryland. A retrospective study was conducted at the statewide medical examiner's office in Maryland to evaluate the characteristics of train-related pedestrian fatalities from 2014 to 2018. The aim of the study was to analyze circumstances of deaths through the medicolegal death investigation and postmortem examination findings, including toxicological study, to help identify epidemiological characteristics of pedestrian–train-related fatalities. A total of 48 pedestrian-train deaths were identified. Of the 48 cases identified, 21 deaths (43.75%) were determined to be accident, 20 deaths (41.67%) were suicide, and 7 deaths (14.58%) whose manner of death could not be determined. Of the 21 accidental victims, 17 were male and 4 were female (M:F ratio = 4.3:1), 11 (52.38%) were white, 6 (28.57%) African American, and 4 Hispanic (19.05%), with age ranging from 16 to 58 years (mean age = 35). Of the 20 suicide victims, 17 were males and 3 females (M:F ratio = 5.7:1), 16 (80%) were white, 2 (10%) African American, and 2 (10%) Hispanic, with age ranging from 22 to 60 years (mean age = 40). The majority of accidents occurred during weekday evening rush hours between 4:00 pm and 7:00 pm, while the suicides showed no specific time frames. No specific peak for seasons of year was found in suicides or accidents. Postmortem toxicological studies showed that 52.38% (11/21 cases) of accidental victims were positive for alcohol and 30% (6/20 cases) of suicide victims were positive for alcohol. Manner of death could not be determined in 7 cases because of unclear circumstances of death. Thorough death scene investigation and complete postmortem examination, including comprehensive toxicological testing, is very important in all train-related pedestrian fatalities. Determining the manner of death can directly affect the outcome of civil ligation and dispersal of insurance benefits. The characteristic profiles of train-related pedestrian fatalities can also assist effective preventive measures on railway suicides and accidents.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

A study on a virtual simulation experiment with DNA in a biological evidence technology course during the COVID-19 pandemic p. 140
Zhenjun Jia, Gao Chunfang, Dai Peng, Liu Zhuo, Qian Zunlei, Yao Weixuan
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_69_20  
Biological evidence technology plays an important role in the field of crime scene investigation. DNA technology is known as one of the important ways to make a breakthrough in the resolution of a criminal case. Nonetheless, there are some problems in on-site experiment-based teaching during the COVID-2019 pandemic, which limits the students' incentives to acquire knowledge about DNA. Under these conditions, the goals and requirements of the Biological Evidence Technology course cannot be achieved. A virtual simulation experiment can solve these problems online. The students can gain a deeper understanding of the process and method of human DNA extraction and identification, and thus, the impact of experiment-based teaching improves. In this paper, we discuss the contents of DNA experiments, specifications of the simulation system, system requirements, the implementation process, and other parameters of the design. We investigated the early teaching effect. A virtual simulation experiment with DNA can overcome the limitations of devices (and other equipment) and spatial and temporal limitations during the COVID-2019 pandemic. Students can participate in the whole process of experiment-based teaching. Teaching mode “Internet + laboratory” increases the open access and sharing of experiment-based teaching resources.
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Expediting the development of virtopsy identification technology in forensic medicine in China p. 144
Liu Xin, Zheng Xiechang
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_74_20  
Virtopsy technology is noninvasive, noncontact, and can find potential lesions. For these reasons, it has broad application prospects in forensic pathology and forensic clinical science. The present article reviews the brief history of virtopsy development, introduces the application of virtopsy in various fields of forensic medicine, summarizes the current situation regarding virtopsy in China, and puts forward suggestions for strengthening planning, setting standards, strengthening assistance, and promoting scientific research.
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CASE REPORT Top

Comparative analysis of CT virtual autopsy and traditional autopsy: A report of 3 cases p. 148
Longda Ma, Rong Liang, Yuluo Liu, Qing Shi, Xiangyang Xu, Lian Yang, Yiwu Zhou
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_71_20  
The objective of the study is to compare the results of virtual autopsy and traditional autopsy and then to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of them. three cases with postmortem computed tomography (CT) examination and autopsy were selected. The CT images were sent to radiologists for interpretation and were compared with autopsy results. In the cases of death in traffic accidents, the two examination conclusions are relatively consistent; in the cases of sudden cardiac death, the information provided by virtual autopsy is limited; virtual autopsy has more strength on showing some lesions such as pneumatosis and fracture. Virtual autopsy has high application value in traffic accident cases, while its application in some sudden death cases remains to be improved.
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