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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2020
Volume 6 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 79-109

Online since Tuesday, September 29, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Developmental validation of the EX16+22Y system p. 79
Xin Wang, Weizhong Chen, Jian Zhang, Yang Cui, Jingjing Chen, Yunjie Shi, Gao Wang, Fayuan Li, Yong Liu, Ruhua Zhou
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_41_19  
The EX16+22Y system is a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based amplification kit that enables typing of 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci (i.e., D3S1358, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, TPOX, TH01, D2S1338, CSF1PO, D19S433, vWA, D18S51, D21S11, D8S1179, D5S818, and FGA) and 22 widely used Y chromosome STR (Y-STR) loci (DYS391, DYS527a/b, DYS635, DYS458, DYS456, DYS385a/b, DYS438, DYS448, DYS437, DYS19, DYS576, DYS533, DYS393, DYS389I/II, DYS439, DYS392, Y_GATA_H4, DYS390, and DYS481) which contains 20 core Y-STR recommended by the Ministry of Public Security and amelogenin. This multiplex system was designed for the simultaneous analysis of amelogenin-Y allele mutation, single-source searches, kinship (including familial searching), mixture profiles, international data sharing, and other forensic applications. In this study, the multiplex system was validated for sensitivity of detection, species specificity, DNA mixtures, stability, sizing precision, stutter, reproducibility, and PCR-based conditions according to the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods developmental validation guidelines and Chinese criteria for the human fluorescent STR multiplex PCR reagent. The results show that the EX16+22Y system is a robust and reliable amplification kit which can be used for human identification testing.
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Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice in forensic dental anatomy and histology among dental practitioners p. 89
Supriya Soni, Payal Shirpure, Ujwal Shahu, Abraham Johnson
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_52_19  
Dental anatomy and histology is one of the fundamental subjects and a key to comprehend the act of dentistry. Dental features such as tooth morphology and variations in shape and size play a vital role in the area of forensic odontology. Forensic odontology is a challenging field that involves the application of such knowledge of dental sciences in the identification of deceased individuals. The aim and objective was to assess and evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding dental anatomy and histology in forensic investigation among dental practitioners. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 217 dental practitioners from Maharashtra who in their day-to-day life may experience instances of forensic interest. The information was collected through telephonic interview by means of a pretested, close-ended questionnaire. In our study, the general awareness about forensic odontology was found to be more among MDS dental practitioners than BDS dental practitioners. Overall, there is a lack of adequate legal knowledge and forensic practices among the dentists of Mumbai and Nagpur. However, the practitioners did have a positive attitude toward the field and were keen to learn more about it. The study is the first of its kind to be conducted in Maharashtra state of India regarding dental anatomy and histology with respect to forensic odontology. The dental practitioners were also aware about the dental anatomy and dental histology with respect to forensic investigation.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Importance and guidelines of postmortem examination on COVID-19 cases: An overview p. 93
Rong Li, Keming Yun, Guoli Yin, Ling Li, Zhao Liu, Xiang Zhang, Ping Yan, Tiantong Yang
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_54_20  
Since the outbreak of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in December 2019, in Wuhan, China, the COVID-19 has spread to 216 countries, areas, and territories and killed more than 400,000 people worldwide. On March 11, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic. The pathological findings of COVID-19 by postmortem biopsy were first reported in April 2020. Since then, there have been many publications regarding the postmortem pathological findings of different organs of COVID-19 patients. Well-performed systemic autopsy examination on patients with related diseases, acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus has provided critical information for better understanding the pathogenesis of the emerging infectious diseases in the past. An overview on the importance and guidelines of postmortem examination on suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients is presented.
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Troponin and its applications in forensic science p. 98
Sachil Kumar
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_3_20  
Troponin is used as the part of today's therapeutic sciences, but is also used in forensics. Studies on troponin and its use in forensic medicine have been retrieved from systematic internet search of databases “PubMed”, “Google Scholar,” “Medline,” and “Science Direct” with the last search performed in December 2019. A total of 38 publications have been reviewed that met the study criteria and have been cited in this article. Discussions on troponin often relate to its valuable attributes and particularly to its handiness as a diagnostic marker for different coronary heart disease. More specifically, it is a sensitive and specific indicators of damage to the heart muscle (myocardium).” Troponin was established in toxicological examinations as a biomarker of cardiovascular injury induced by drugs. Troponin degrades in a regular and predictable fashion and could be a reliable marker for determining the time and cause of death. In this review, the author outlines the potential application of troponin in forensic science.
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CASE REPORT Top

Can chronic heart disease lead to active suicidal ideation? – A case report of a planned suicide p. 102
Samarendra Barman
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_30_20  
The link between chronic illness and depression is complex but indisputable. Individuals with depression may resort to suicide to end their suffering, especially if they have an intractable and incurable illness. Evidence suggests that young people with chronic illness are more likely than older individuals to experience concomitant mental illnesses and thus have an increased risk of suicide attempts. Determined suicidal individuals may use either multiple, potentially fatal, methods in a single event or a single, excessively fatal method to ensure that they do not survive. This may happen in cases where an individual attempts suicide for the first time. In these circumstances, determining the cause of suicide is of paramount importance for future risk assessment and prevention. This report describes the case of a patient with known heart disease who self-inflicted multiple, sharp force injuries on his neck and wrists to end his life.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATION Top

U-47700 – Incidence of a novel psychoactive substance in a series of medical examiner cases in Oakland County, MI p. 105
Lauren Aiello, Emily Skwarek, Daniel Isenschmidt, Ljubisa J Dragovic
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_2_20  
U-47700 is one of many drugs that have been part of a group of compounds called novel psychoactive substances (NPS). U-47700 is a synthetic opioid agonist developed by Upjohn pharmaceuticals but never approved. The Oakland County Medical Examiner's Office in Pontiac, Michigan, began observing this compound in the fall of 2016, primarily in cases with other drugs of abuse and NPS. This communication described 18 drug-related deaths in which U-47700 was detected. Blood U-47700 concentrations ranged from 0.37 to 370 ng/mL (mean 35 and median 4.9 ng/mL). Other opioids were detected in 83% of the cases. Other drugs present in these cases are described as well as the scene investigation. While only one death was likely due directly to U-47700, the cases described here demonstrate how NPS have become an important consideration in evaluating drug-related deaths today.
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