|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 68-75
Study on transfer and persistence of fibers: A systematic review
Manashree Mane1, G Devika2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Forensic Science, JAIN (Deemed-to-be University), Bangalore, Karnataka, India
2 BSc Student, Department of Forensic Science, JAIN (Deemed-to-be University), Bangalore, Karnataka, India
|Date of Submission||28-Aug-2021|
|Date of Decision||29-Nov-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||05-Jan-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||28-Jun-2022|
Department of Forensic Science, JAIN (Deemed-to-be University), Bengaluru - 560 027, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Fiber evidence has played a crucial role in ascertaining various characteristics and has aided in providing evidential value to the fiber evidence as well as reconstructing events during crime scene investigation. Although fibers are transferred easily at the crime scene and various methods of interpretation exist, it is challenging to get a fiber match. The present study aims to provide a systematic review of the role of fiber as trace evidence. It explores the fiber population, transfer and persistence of fibers, fiber shedability and recovery, effect of laundry on fibers, stabbing events, the resistance of fabric against weapon's penetration, the behavior of fabric upon ballistic impact, and various analytical techniques of fiber examination. The study approaches to evaluate the significances and uncertainties of the recovered fiber evidence.
Keywords: Damaged fabrics, fiber evidence, persistence, transfer
|How to cite this article:|
Mane M, Devika G. Study on transfer and persistence of fibers: A systematic review. J Forensic Sci Med 2022;8:68-75
| Introduction|| |
According to Locard's exchange principle, fibers are transferred readily and are generally found as trace evidence in most criminal cases involving physical contact between an offender and victim. In most cases, the offender often leaves fibers behind at the crime scene, leaving it on the victim or nearby on an object. Importantly, the fibers of a victim's apparel usually get transferred to the body or garment of the offender naturally. This evidence can establish the associations between people as these fibers transferred during such events provide valuable evidence of contacts made. However, it is to be noted that, all transferred fibers do not persist for a longer period after the primary contact; and as a result of that, “the transfer and persistence characteristics of fibers” have been the most preferred subject of many forensic studies.
Various factors contribute to the fiber transfer, and hence, the simulated trials can give only general guidance. Fibers can get lost and retransferred where the exact distribution of a small number of fibers cannot be estimated. Inability to find fibers matching the complainant's clothing may not always imply a lack of contact. Contamination prevention procedures must be considered at the crime scenes and in the laboratory to protect the integrity of evidence. The fibers which remain will be very persistent and difficult to remove with a time of wear.
The duration of fibers after a transfer is determined by persistence. In an alleged assault case, the extent of the assault or in establishing the intent of an alleged assailant can be determined from the nature of damage to the clothing of a complainant and this evidence may assist the court to determine the facts. Many variables may influence the profile of the damage that including the weapon, the stabbing action, the assailant, the victim, and the fabric itself. In countries, especially where access to firearms is restricted, sharp force injuries have been reported as the most common crimes of violence. This trauma has been caused by various objects, including knives, screwdrivers, glass, scalpels, scissors, in contact with wire or debris, axes, crossbow bolts, and razor blades. After analyzing the damaged textiles, information such as blade type and size may be estimated. This generally involves the careful observation of severance and fiber end morphologies and the measurement of severance dimensions. The characteristics shown may be more unique in any damaged apparel, and therefore, it may be considered that a stronger association of more distinctive weapons has caused the damage.
In general, the crimes such as armed robbery, rape, and terrorist activities are being often carried out with the perpetrator wearing some form of mask or disguise, making eyewitness identification difficult and impossible. Usually, ski masks or simply the sleeve of a sweater are used in this type of crime. After a crime or incident, it is routinely examined for the presence of saliva and hairs so that comparison can then be made with samples taken from any suspects when the mask is recovered. However, the probability of a greater evidential value is if fibers from the mask can be found instead of the hair of the accused.
Fibers can be transferred if and when contact occurs between different textile items such as clothing, furniture, and car seat. For a result-oriented search and recovery of fibers, it is important to rely on the understanding of how such traces are transferred and persist on different surfaces. An actual number of fibers that will persist on an item is directly dependent on the number of fibers that were already transferred during the initial contact itself. The donor garment, the recipient, and the type of contact are the main parameters influencing the numbers. Although the parameters influencing the transfer remain important, two new parameters become very critical: The time lost between the alleged contact and the recovery of fiber, and the activities underwent by the recipient.
Research and studies further have demonstrated that there is a two-stage mechanism of decay in existence concerning an array of trace materials. However, only a little research work has been published of the forensic trace studies undertaken to examine the effect of multiple direct and indirect transfers of materials within groups of people and inert objects in forensic contexts; thus, furthering the dictum of Locard's to question the extent to which “every contact leaves a trace.”
The capability to approximate or estimate the shedding potential of garments involved in fiber transfer examinations can help in analyzing and assessing whether a garment will be a good potential donor of “target” fibers and indicate whether the recovered fibers have arisen from primary transfer rather than the secondary. Whereas it is important to adopt a method designed to supply information on shedding potential that should be easy to execute, reproducible, and significantly simulate real-life conditions in the best possible manner. Usually, tapings taken from car seats are examined for clothing fibers. Experience and feedback received from these tapings often contain other types of fibers that, owing to their distinctive morphology, are unlikely to have originated from clothing car seats and mostly are manufactured from durable woven materials. The use of the car seats regularly results in the wear of the fabric and which in turn results in fabric that sheds fibers readily.
The persistence of fibers determines whether they are likely to be found or not on recipient clothing depending on the number of fibers, which have been transferred to a garment during a contact. A certain period may be elapsed before recovery of the clothes from a suspect and that may vary from a few hours to several months, sometimes a few years also after the crime incident. In the tapings collected, scientists usually try to find fibers that are primarily from the clothing of the offender, even though the identity is unknown at this point. During daily case studies and work, it is significantly important to know the mechanisms of transfer and knowledge of the persistence of transferred fibers throughout such investigations. It is of great interest and challenging work to forensic scientists to have at least some information data and ideas of the number of transferred fibers that are likely to remain.
In most cases of crime, especially in a violent crime, which is often associated with an extensive transfer of traces. At the same time, finding a smaller number of traces may also be relevant and not to be ignored as this also gives some vital information. Part of these traces may have been lost after the commission of the crime is definite over some time, for several reasons. To determine the possible loss of traces due to various external factors can be made by the study of the persistence of traces consists in it. By finding a smaller number of traces may also be very important and useful in case of a violent crime which is often associated with an extensive transfer of traces as well.
Transfer of material happens from one item called “donor” to another named “recipient” which is generally associated with contact between the two items. It also can be in contact with proximity between the two items, such as paint transfer by splashing or glass transfer when close to a breaking window. It may not necessarily be sufficient for transfer to occur by direct contact on its own. However, there may also be some sort of action or force involved. Factors that affect the degree of transfer of materials include the duration of contact, the physical strength of the contact, the nature and condition of the donor material, and the nature and condition of the recipient material.
The textile examination helps forensic science to decide upon the cause of the damage, the mechanism that can create the damage, and the act that causes the damage. When a screwdriver which is a blunt object penetrates the textile by pushing and tearing yarn, it gives an appearance of a “hole” with irregular yarn ends that results in textile distortion and puncture damage occurs. The area of damage when handled can flatten the hole created leaving behind the indication of frayed yarn ends. Flattening of the fibers may or may not be permanent. With synthetic yarns being impacted significantly the fibers can be found melded. Abrasion can take place where the textile has contact with a rough surface. Observations that become significant for examination are missing fibers, frayed yarn ends, and presence of possible dirt/particulate matter.
Thermal damage may be observed in case of contact with iron, proximity to a heat source, flame, and friction. For example, cotton turns into ashes when exposed to flame, whereas synthetic fiber melts. The secondary transfer is an important mechanism that associates with fiber transfer. Fibers may undergo a primary transfer such as from clothes onto a car seat. The secondary transfer may happen when another person sits in the same seat, and fibers from the clothes of the first person get transferred to the clothing of the second.
As far as homicides cases are concerned, it is common for the naked body of the victim to be deposited away from the original crime scene, and in all these cases, we have to find trace evidence such as fibers, potentially relating to the offender, to be recovered from the skin of the victim. Where the victim has been deposited at an outdoor location, it will be very difficult and provides great challenges in recovering fiber; especially in the situation where the victim's skin is wet, contaminated with soil and vegetation, etc. It is important to note that, valuable and informative evidence can be obtained if the cross-transference of fibers can be established between the outer/inner clothing of the suspect and victim.
In forensic reproductions of stab events, simulants/backing materials that represent the human body are being widely used. In general, gelatine should be used but pork is being used often in preference to gelatine. It is because the time required to manufacture gelatine blocks is much longer and the time frame is limited like gelatine which generally should be used the day after manufacture. In the commission of a crime, damage caused to the apparel is also likely to have been subjected to various forms of degradation which can contribute to the nature and consider the maximum extent of damage evident.
The physical and mechanical properties of fabrics must also be considered along with the determination of normal wear and tear. Stabbing through fabrics must be examined thoroughly as the fabric is made up of yarns containing individual fibers. It is suggested that scanning electron microscope forensic examination can be more useful. The use of protective clothing like personal protective equipment with the stabbing resistance is considered by researchers in all aspects. It is depending on the force of the stabbing action, and its impacts that vary in the force may contribute to variations in textile damage. In the case of a stabbing event where the knife is encountered as evidence, during the investigation, the forensic scientist may compare a suspect knife by examining the victim's clothing and determine some detail of the offending knife or with holes in the victim's clothing.
It is important during an examination the textile properties are accurately characterized and documented carefully by using the appropriate tools. The important matters that should be documented are the fabric construction, yarn type and direction of twist, and fiber type and composition, etc. The skin behaves differently in a different types of stabbing incidents.
Most assault cases against correctional officers in vast correctional institutions involve improvised stabbing weapons, rather than firearms. Stabbing attacks are generally classified into two categories and they are puncture and cut. The penetration by instruments with sharp tips but no cutting edge, such as ice picks or awls is referred to as a puncture. The puncture-related threats are of primary concern to correctional officers, as these sharp pointed objects are comparatively easy to improvise. Making contact with knives with a continuous cutting edge is referred to as a cut. Knife threats are generally considered more difficult to stop than puncture as the long cutting and sharp edge gives continual and incessant damages caused during the stabbing event. Therefore, thermoplastic-coated fabrics are being used in commercial body armor systems to provide both knife and spike protection.
In cases where the clothes of the target are primarily targeted and encountered by the bullet, it is often easy to determine the direction. In such scenarios, the phenomenon of bullet wipes provides a definitive key solution. Investigators and forensic scientists rely upon the direction of protruding fibers around the margin of an entry bullet holes in the clothing worn by the victims of gunshot injuries to determine the bullet direction and confirm the entry and exit holes. In general, the inward protrusion of fibers around the margin of a bullet hole in clothing is misinterpreted as the point of entry hole and the outward protrusion as the point of exit. Examination of clothing can also indicate its range. In a contact shot, the clothing usually shows a cross-shaped perforation and may be singed at the edge of the hole. The inner surface of the garment may show an abundant deposit of smoke, even if none is seen on the outside. This results from the spreading of smoke between skin and clothing by muzzle blast and is especially seen if the shot passed through several layers of fabric. Cotton and polyester shirts allow gunpowder particles to pass freely, causing small holes in the fabric. In close shots, the clothing may absorb or filter out all of the products of discharge accept the bullet. An entrance hole in clothing, if made by a lead or full metal-jacketed bullet, may produce a grey to black rim known as “bullet wipe.” Sometimes, pieces of cloth are carried into the wound of the entrance.
The deformation of fabric structure and its construction, the failure, and the deformation of the yarns are the main mechanisms of kinetic energy absorption of the projectiles by fabric targets. Manufacturing fabric with fibers of high modulus, high failure stress, and high failure strain or by increasing the deformation of the fabric structure during impact helps provide high absorption capacity of the fabric. Increasing the number of damaged fibers and yarns and the deformation zone of the fabric increases the capability of ballistics protection. The factors such as yarn elastic modulus, yarn tensile strength, yarn failure strain, yarn linear density, fabric construction, the area density of fabric target, etc., on the fabric target deformation, damage, absorption of the kinetic energy of the projectile, and ballistic limit influence the models that have been established which assist in designing bulletproof fabric targets.
Shedding depends on the length of cotton fibers and the availability of surface fibers as a result of the textile's construction. Method of shedding test by “taping and comparing” has been a practical approach for the comparison of shedding potential of diverse fabric types. Textile pile debridement materials with back-coating have a low probability for shedding which helps in manufacturing textile pile materials that would meet up with the properties of wound debridement application. Many contact fibers can be transferred and redistributed to other areas of the clothing worn by the volunteers which depend on various factors including the nature of recipient garments.
The composition of glue and plastic layers of various types can be determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The tapes can be tested for their ability of fiber uptake and recovery. High tack tape is the best among all considering its low saturation property and best fiber recovery. Since entanglement is related to the extent of fiber movement, textiles with smooth surfaces prevent entanglement and lead to better recovery, whereas textiles with rough surfaces lead to intense entanglement and thus reduce the rate of fiber recovery.
Recovery of background fibers on knife blades using tape lifting method and classification can be done based on its color and generic type with the use of stereomicroscope. The most common color/type combination is colorless/white cotton which accounts for 31%. Some blade characteristics such as the presence of a thumb stud or the presence of sticky substances appear to influence the number of fibers present in background populations. If a greater number of indistinguishable fibers are found, the probability of it originating from the background population is lower.
Fiber population on front seat fabrics of 25 cars shows that 87% of 5299 fibers examined are natural fibers in which cotton is the most common type. Percentage distribution of fibers is classified according to length in which 88% of the cotton fibers transferred are smaller than wool and other types.
| Population|| |
A study on target fiber study on 80 seats in the public houses shows a maximum number of matching fibers in any one public house is six and on anyone, the seat is five. Therefore, it is unlikely that a large number of a particular fiber will be found by chance. The chances of two blue polyester fibers, taken at random from different sources, matching is very low. When diameter, cross-section, fluorescence behavior, delustrant particle size distribution, birefringence is studied, only a few matching fiber pairs are indistinguishable.
The significance of fiber evidence in cases involving masks is high where fiber length is found to be 1.1–3 mm. Fewer fibers are recovered from long hair than short or medium length hair and taping is less efficient in long hair in which cotton is found to be abundant. The fibers encountered on the hair region can reflect the type of clothing worn by the individual. Any fiber type can suggest strong evidence of contact based on the applicability of the fiber evidence. The high degree of variability makes the evidence informative. Most of the recovered fibers are natural, cotton being the most common. The number of flock fibers that can be observed on the tapings may only be a residue of those that are present on the surface at the point of contact.
| Fiber Transfer|| |
Variations can happen on the number of fiber transfers while employing the same set of conditions. The surface area of the weapon also affects the degree of transference. When two garments are stabbed in sequence, fibers of both garments can be recovered from the blade. Fibers that originate from damaged garments can still be recovered from the blade. Transfer mechanism can also be considered in scenarios where increasing the pressure of the contact results in an increase of fiber transfer. Fewer polyester and viscose fibers are transferred than wool or acrylic fibers. Wearing the donor cardigan in contact with a car seat results in the greatest number of fibers being transferred to the seat back. A small percentage of the primary transfer is likely to be secondarily transferred and that the numbers found are inversely proportional to the time interval between primary and secondary transfers.
Donor garments have an influential effect on fiber transfer that is observed on the recipient. The flat even surface of the woven fabric of the jacket offers better contact with the seat than the uneven knit surfaces. Cotton, acrylic, and wool have the greatest degree of secondary transfer. Fabrics composed of mixtures of synthetic polymer fibers are likely to transfer fibers during contact in reasonably close approximation to their composition expressed as a percentage by a number which could be calculated experimentally. The nature of the contact impacts the transfer of fibers, notably the modus operandi and the amount of friction. The transfer will be efficient where the friction is greatest. Blade characteristics appear to influence the number of fibers present in background populations. When the number of indistinguishable fibers is more, the probability that they originate from the background population is lower.
| Persistence|| |
Fibers transferred using higher contact pressures are lost at a slower rate compared to lower contact pressures. Fiber transfer to the bare arms of living subjects shows no target fibers are found to remain after 24 h. A large number of fibers on a naked body were transferred and fibers were expected to be lost in 2 days where any amount recovered after that time was likely to represent a very small amount that was originally transferred. The amount of fiber transfer increases with the area of contact and pressure of contact but decreases with consecutive contact passes and varies depending on the recipient garment. Persistence in a burial environment where both cotton and wool fibers can persist on a skin surface for 14 days shows cotton is transferred to porcine skin higher than wool. Persistence of transferred fibers of cotton on immersed/emersion/stay process of water bodies shows there is an initial loss of ~10% during the immersion step and a loss of ~5% during the emersion step, while they stay in water leads to an approximate loss of 1% per hour. The persistence of flock fiber length, car upholstery, and trouser materials can be studied. After 1 min, 50% of the flock fibers get lost. In the next four minutes, the number of flock fibers further decreases to 40% of the initial amount of flock fibers donated. The type of clothing fabric and the age and type of automobile carpeting together influence the transfer of fibers and the amount of time the garment had been worn would influence the number of fibers remaining.
| Effect of Laundry|| |
Considerable force in an attempt to pull the bra off the wearer can be compared with damage to bra hook by washing machine to assess the possibility for the damage caused as a result of struggle. If clothing is laundered after an assault, the fabric morphology of the severance will change and thus the ease of identifying the weapon can be diminished. Valuable fiber evidence may still be attained when the garments of interest have been laundered. Machine wash facilitates the secondary transfer of extraneous fibers present on the surface of one garment to another. The increased ability to achieve the resolution of detergents on dyed fibers compared to undyed fibers indicates the importance of the role of the fluorescence of the fibers and the dyes. Unwashed fibers provide a detergent fingerprint that is used to distinguish unlaundered from laundered fibers using principal component cluster analysis.
| Effect of Stabbing|| |
Kitchen knives are the most common sharp instruments used which accounts for 58% of homicides. The screwdriver blade has a blunt tip and the force required for penetration is greater. The data obtained for earnings per share had the lowest variability and reflected the actual dimensions of the knives used during the impact testing. Fabric type affects the difference between marks on fabric and underlying skin due to stabbing action which is statistically significant when the fabric gets stretched over the skin and in these cases the mark on the fabric is always less than the mark on the skin. The physical morphology of the fibers, yarns, and fabric near the severed edge of the fabric can help determine the cause of some severance. The total energy which can be delivered to a target as a function of handle size and shape can be made by the use of a finger guard or hilt. The round tip knife blade results in no significant damage to any of the fabrics. Postmortem computed tomography can be used to reconstruct the stab events on dead bodies. The maximum displacement and maximum in-plane failure function decrease with the increase in in-plane modulus of elasticity for both E-glass/epoxy and T300/5208 carbon/epoxy laminates where if the upper layer is under compressive stresses for the woven fabric laminates, and the failure initiates on the upper layer.
Clothing has an impact on the amount of force required for knives to penetrate fabrics, where force is variable and does not appear to correlate with the type of fabric and blade. The difference in weaves of fabric could account for variations in force. The fabric structure also significantly affected the stabbing resistant force. When the front of the target was approached, most participants held the weapons with the cutting edge of the blade facing down towards the floor (69%). When approaching from the back, the cutting edge of the blade was kept facing down toward the floor (60%). Horsfall et al. in 1999 quantified the energy achieved for stabbing action. For underarm stabbing action, the mean value of energy achieved was 26. For the shoulder joint, angular displacements at blade entry for “long” conditions were greater than their “short” counterparts. Men generate more force than women during stabbing performances.
| Fabric and Ballistics|| |
Fabric specimens absorb the most impact energy when the projectile is hemispherical and the least energy when they were ogival or conical. The influence of friction during the ballistic impact of a rigid sphere onto a square fabric panel shows a reduction of lateral yarn mobility. An increase in energy absorption does not change or affect when the ply number is increased. The longitudinal and transverse waves propagate along the radial direction. The transverse wave is responsible for cone formation on the exit side of the plate. The contact duration between the projectile and the target decreases as the incident ballistic impact velocity increases. Low-velocity perforation produces a much larger region of creasing and stretching. Holes formed in specimens are smaller than the projectile diameter, indicating that the projectile perforates the fabric by breaking a few yarns and slipping through the small opening created. A model developed can deal with and predict with really complex effects of shooting a fabric. An increase in Kevlar fabric energy absorption capacity with higher projectile impact speed can be seen. Changes in the birefringence quality of Spectra-1000 fibers, as seen by polarized light microscopy, provide an overview of crystallinity changes in fibers subjected to ballistic impact. Intermediate targets such as clothing can affect penetration into tissues. The thicker denim and cotton fabrics provided slightly greater protection than polyester. As fabric deforms, friction contributes to decreasing the projectile's residual velocity. Impact performance variability generally decreases by increasing inter-yarn friction levels when plain-weave Kevlar KM2 fabrics are impacted by a 0.22 caliber spherical projectile. The ballistic fabrics can be modified to provide enhanced stab resistance. If the fiber-resin shear strength is constant, then the critical aspect ratio is directly related to fiber tensile strength.
| Instrumental Analysis of Fibers|| |
FTIR and Raman are some of the efficient methods for the quantification of the degree of crystallinity of polymers. Microspectrophotometry (MSP) can be used to determine the amount of dye present in polyester fibers without extraction. MSP enables the calculation of the complementary chromaticity coordinates from the spectra recorded, which provides objective color comparison. Raman spectra of fibers comparatively had a lower signal-to-noise ratio than those measured on aluminum foil slide. FTIR is useful for providing subclasses of the fabric types. Farah et al., 2015 reviewed various analytical techniques. Polarized microscopy reveals information about fiber surface characteristics, fiber diameters, and optical properties such as refractive index and birefringence, which can discriminate chemically identical fibers. Microscopic images of the dyed fabric surfaces are obtained both before and after MALDESI analysis to provide qualitative information on the level of destruction. Ultraviolet-visible MSP remains the most efficient method and the recommended analytical technique for the routine study of textile fibers in the forensic field. Vibrational spectroscopy methods like Raman and IR are quantitative and non-destructive. Dye analysis is possible whenever physical handling of the fiber using tweezers was carried out except for pale colors. All cotton samples dyed with reactive dyes originating from one manufacturer are distinguishable with the use of MSP.
| Conclusion|| |
The shedding capacity of any fabric depends on the textile's construction i.e., different resistance, elasticity, length, and arrangement of yarn construction. Thus, primary transfer simulation has to be performed along with shedding evaluations to avoid overestimating the presence of one particular fiber at the crime scene. It is at the searching stage where the success or failure of fiber examination depends on, and for that reason, a suitable type of tape must be used. The tape should have properties like high fiber uptake, saturation, and recovery. When investigating cases involving vehicles, transfer from the vehicle to a suspect or victim's clothing should always be considered since vehicles could be a great source for evidentially significant fibers. It is significant when the clothing of a victim doesn't shed fibers. The older vehicles tend to shed their car seat fibers more than newer ones, which is to be expected through the wear of the fabric. The shedding property of fibers is just one factor that affects transfer. When interpreting fiber transfer, the surface area of the weapon and fiber's potential to fray should be considered and direct contact isn't necessary for transfer to occur. A relatively small number of primarily transferred fibers get secondarily transferred and the count is inversely proportional to time. In violent cases, searching for potential fibers from the first garment inside the second stab damage or at the edge of the blade becomes useful for reconstruction. While simulating the transfer through contact, it is impossible to control variables like force given and mechanics precisely. Trends of transference should be examined by forensic scientists rather than predicting a precise number of fibers transferred. Fiber loss may depend on the pressure of contact, length of fibers, weather conditions, outer clothes, the position of the person, etc. While smothering, the fibers may be found in the hair of the victim. Fibers persist in curly hair for a longer time, and it is not completely lost after washing. Fiber evidence can still be collected from bodies deposited outdoors in the cases of homicides if retrieved within 2 days. Since fibers found after that will only be a proportion of the originally transferred. Fibers may persist even in underwater conditions. Fibers from the offender's clothing would persist longer in the victim's clothing than vice versa. However, contactless transfer of fiber mechanism has not been explored much yet. Future works should focus on contactless transfer mechanisms and redistribution of fibers. Through simulations of experiments are carried out in most of the works, its applicability in real-case scenarios varies because of the nature of other variables at the crime scene. More advanced experimental works and case study works are to be done in real crime scenes to know better about the real-time factors that affect transfer and persistence especially. Thus, any fiber evidence could be potentially beneficial according to the nature of the case and the application of fiber evidence and possible causes can be eliminated with greater certainty.
The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Asha Rajiv (Director, JAIN (Deemed-to-be University) for her constant guidance and support.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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