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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 12-17

Comparative analysis of cephalofacial dimorphism among indigenous ethnic groups in Benue State, Nigeria

1 Department of Anatomy, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
2 Department of Anatomy, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Joseph Igbo Enya
Department of Anatomy, University of Ilorin, Ilorin
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_49_19

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The face is an important physiognomic feature in humans, and facial anthropometric variables are valuable biometric physiognomies that vary with age, sex, and ethnicity. This study aimed to establish a standard for determining the extent of sexual dimorphism and study the distribution of basic face types by comparison with other ethnic groups in Benue State and Nigeria as a whole. A sample of 450 indigenous people from the Benue State volunteered to participate in this study. The cohort included 150 Tiv, 150 Idoma, and 150 Igede people, between the age group of 18 and 35 years. Participants were randomly recruited from the entire geographical locations of the state, using the inclusion criteria. Anthropometric variables were measured using a digital sliding caliper including facial length (FL) (measured from the trichion to the gnathion) and facial width (FW) (measured as the bizygomatic width, between the right and left zygion). Cephalofacial indices were calculated from these variables. The results revealed significant differences in some of the measured variables between males and females across the various ethnic groups in Benue State, including variation in FL and FW. The comparative results for various ethnicities in Benue State (Tiv, Idoma, and Igede people) also showed a positive correlation between FL and FW, which could be used to predict cephalofacial indices among Tiv, Idoma, and Igede ethnic groups in this area. These results indicate that the dominant facial index among Idoma and Igede people was leptoprosopic (long face) while that among Tiv people is mesoprosopic (round face). The current findings could be useful for elucidating the sex differences and ancestral relationships, as well as for forensic anthropology, reconstructive surgery, and anthropometric considerations for the three ethnic groups in Benue State, Nigeria.

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