

ORIGINAL ARTICLE 

Year : 2016  Volume
: 2
 Issue : 4  Page : 219221 

Estimation of Stature from Percutaneous Tibia Length of Indigenes of Bekwara Ethnic Group of Cross River State, Nigeria
Ugochukwu Godfrey Esomonu, Lukpata Philip Ugbem, BenAbua M Donald
Department of Anatomy and Forensic Anthropology, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Cross River University of Technology, Okuku Campus, Calabar, Nigeria
Date of Web Publication  9Jan2017 
Correspondence Address: Ugochukwu Godfrey Esomonu Department of Anatomy and Forensic Anthropology, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Cross River University of Technology, Okuku Campus, Calabar Nigeria
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None  Check 
DOI: 10.4103/23495014.197926
Estimating stature by developing linear regression equations which incorporate the features of fragmented body parts or human skeletal remains has been employed by many forensic anthropologists to establish the identity of victims of mass disaster although all formulas are ethnic, age, and gender specific. The study is aimed at using the percutaneous tibia length (PCTL) to deriving a specific regression equation formula which could be used to estimate the stature of adult indigenes of Bekwara ethnic group in Cross River State. A total number of 600 subjects within the age range of 21–45 years were recruited randomly for this research (300 males and 300 females). Observed height and PCTL were measured using the standard anthropometric technique, respectively. Stature was estimated from PCTL using simple regression analysis. On analysis of the data, the mean PCTL for male was found to be 43.60 ± 2.31 cm while that of female was 42.55 ± 2.83 cm. The observed height was 165.80 ± 6.88 cm and 156.70 ± 6.06 cm for male and female, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the male values of the measured parameters were significantly higher than the corresponding female values. The linear regression equations derived for male and female for the estimation of height using the PCTL was found to be 5.289 (PCTL) + (−64.78) and 4.230 (TL) + (−23.28), respectively. It was concluded that stature can be estimated using the length of an intact mutilated leg. Thus, the data of this study are recommended in anthropological studies for stature estimation among the ethnic group under study. Keywords: Bekwara, Cross River State, percutaneous tibia length, stature
How to cite this article: Esomonu UG, Ugbem LP, Donald BAM. Estimation of Stature from Percutaneous Tibia Length of Indigenes of Bekwara Ethnic Group of Cross River State, Nigeria. J Forensic Sci Med 2016;2:21921 
How to cite this URL: Esomonu UG, Ugbem LP, Donald BAM. Estimation of Stature from Percutaneous Tibia Length of Indigenes of Bekwara Ethnic Group of Cross River State, Nigeria. J Forensic Sci Med [serial online] 2016 [cited 2020 Nov 24];2:21921. Available from: https://www.jfsmonline.com/text.asp?2016/2/4/219/197926 
Introduction   
Anthropometry is the part of physical anthropology that involves the physical measurement of the human body and its parts to express quantitatively the dimensions of the various human body parts and the skeleton. Anthropometry has a traditional basic tool of biological anthropology;^{[1]} it can also be employed in forensic anthropology and the discipline of forensic science.
Estimation of height from the measurement of various parts of the body is of particular interests to many forensic anthropologists, anatomists, and forensic scientists due to its importance in medicolegal cases.^{[2]} In forensic anthropology particularly, examination of skeletal remains recovered from a scene of a crime have often been used to extract relevant information about the victim; one such aspect pertains to the reconstruction of stature from such skeletal remains.^{[3]} It is, therefore, no longer new to anatomist and physical anthropologists that various body parts exhibit a close relationship with stature ^{[4],[5],[6],[7],[8]} as such regression equations developed in relation to stature can be conveniently employed in the identification of victims of mass disaster where fragmental body parts are commingled; as well as in cultural anthropology in the determination of a particular tribe's antecedence based on their identifying features.
Fully's anatomical formula for stature reconstruction most times cannot be used by forensic anthropologists in the estimation of stature due to nonavailability of the complete skeleton which is always the case in mass disasters. It is then obvious why forensic anthropologists employ mathematical methods linear regression analysis which has been proven to be valuable even in situ ations where only a part of the body ^{[9]} or fragment of the bone are available.^{[10],[11],[12],[13]} Although there are various mathematical methods employed in stature estimation especially from bones, regression analysis is believed to be the most reliable method.^{[14],[15],[16]}
Age, gender, race, geographical climate, nutrition, and genetic factors are believed most times to be the main determinant of the physical features of an individual. Therefore, most regression formulas derived are meant to be specific for a particular region that is the reason derived formula cannot be generalized.^{[14],[15],[16],[17]} It is, therefore, necessary to derive regression equations which are gender, ethnic, and race specific ^{[15]} which can be applied to estimate stature of a population from its skeletal remains.
The present study is aimed at investigating and establishing the relationship between stature and percutaneous tibia length (PCTL) to derive a specific regression equation formula which could be used to estimate the height of the people of Bekwara ethnic group of Cross River State in cases whereby it is seemly not feasible to obtain the actual height through the normal crown to heel measurement.
Subjects and Methods   
A total number of 600 subjects were recruited for this research (300 males and 300 females) across the Bekwara ethnic group in Cross River State. Subjects which were invited to participate in the study where within the age range of 21–45 years with normal body configuration and both parents being indigenes of Bekwara ethnic group of Cross River State. All the measurements used for this research were taken in the morning hours; this is because individuals are presumed to be more relaxed in the morning hours than in the afternoon.
Anthropometric measurement
Percutaneous tibial length
The subject sat with left knee placed in the semiflexed position and the left foot partly everted to relax the soft tissues and render bony landmarks prominent. Using the flexible tape, the length of tibia from the medial condyle (as it becomes palpable and diverges anteriorly from the articulating femoral condyle) to the tip of the medial malleolus is measured.^{[18]}
Height measurement
This measurement was taken with the subject standing erect without shoes or socks, with the heels put together, and the eyes directed straight ahead. The subjects stood erect against a wall, having his/her buttocks, shoulder blades, and back of head in close contact with the wall, and the head placed in a position called the “Frankfurt plane.” In this described position, the measurement is taken with an anthropometer placed on the same leveled floor with the sole of the foot of the subject and the pointer place directly horizontal to the subject's vertex.
Results   
This research work was carried out on 600 randomly selected indigenes of Bekwarra ethnic group of Cross River State. The data gotten were analyzed using GraphPad Prism 5 (version 5.03 Graph Pad Inc., CA 92037, USA) to calculate mean ± standard deviation (SD) for the measured parameter. The combined results for mean ± SD of height and PCTL of both male and female across the population are expressed in [Table 1]. The correlation was also done for height using the PCTL, and the results are presented in [Table 2] while [Table 3] illustrates the regression equation derived for the estimation of the height of indigenes of Bekwara ethnic group using the PCTL.  Table 1: Descriptive statistics showing mean and standard deviation of measured parameters
Click here to view 
 Table 3: Linear regression equation for stature estimation using the percutaneous tibia length
Click here to view 
Results presented showed that the male values of all the measured parameters were significantly higher than the corresponding female values.
The linear regression equations derived for male and female for the estimation of height using the PCTL was found to be 5.289 (TL) + (−64.78) and 4.230 (TL) + (−23.28), respectively. However, the overall total regression equation for the estimation of an individual's height irrespective of sex was found to be 5.609 × TL + (−80.36).
Discussion   
The estimation of stature is considered as one of the important parameters in the identification of a person. The body parts show a biological correlation with stature. This fact has been utilized by many workers in their bid to estimate stature using various body parts or skeletal remains.^{[7],[8]}
The long bones of the lower limb provide a firm base that supports the stature of a person. This shows that stature increase is dependent on the various components that make up the individuals stature.
Many anatomists and researchers in this field have used other body parameters such as arm span, head length, fibular length for obtaining height in individuals, as well as foot length and its dimensions in conjunction with multiple parameters.^{[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[19]} This study analyzed the correlation between Stature and Tibia length of the Bekwara ethnic group of Cross River State of Nigeria from age 18 to 40 years of age. Regression equations were then derived for the prediction of height.
Although many studies have shown that there is a significant correlation between stature and tibia length,^{[20]} the present study has also successfully shown a significant correlation between both parameters.
From the data obtained from the Bekwarra indigenes, the average height for male was 165.80 ± 6.88 cm, while that for female was 156.90 ± 6.60 cm while the total mean height irrespective of age or gender was given as 156.70 ± 6.06 cm. Esomonu et al. also revealed that the observed mean values of stature for males of Bekwara ethnic group are 158.4 ± 19 cm while females recorded 154.0 ± 13 cm, respectively ^{[7]} the higher values noted in the present study might be attributed to the fact that only adults were considered whereas in the later it is the average of both children and adults.
Linear regression equation obtained for male in the current study was reported to be 5.289 × PCTL + (−64.78) with mean tibia length of 44 cm, the estimated stature for male was revealed as 167.9 cm while female was 4.230 × PCTL + (−23.28) with 43 cm as mean value for tibia which also gave an estimated stature of 158.6 cm. Although the linear regression equation for the estimation of stature using arm span length among indigenes of Bekwara ethnic group of Cross River State were derived for indigenes within 6–30 years old ^{[7]} the values obtained for the estimated stature is slightly similar to the result of the present study for indigenes of Bekwara within age range of 21–40 years. The previous study presented the linear regression equation for males in Bekwara ethnic group as 25.71+ (0.781 × arm span) with a recorded estimated stature of 158.2 cm, while that of females is 31.83+ (0.753 × arm span) with stature estimate of 154.0 cm. Therefore, they asserted that arm span length of Bekwara ethnic group indigenes is an efficient anthropometric body segment parameter that can be employed in the estimation of stature just as the present study has shown that percutaneous length of the tibia is also a reliably parameter to effective estimate stature.
Therefore, height estimate can be derived from PCTL using the derived formulas.
Conclusion   
It has been shown that it could be possible to estimate stature using the data and formula derived from this study. However, the formulae derived can only be ethnic specific as such it cannot be generalized to other ethnic group or population; hence, it is necessary to derive linear regression equations which are population specific. Thus, the data of this study are recommended in anthropological studies for stature estimation among the ethnic group under study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Nil.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
References   
1.  Havna S, Nath S. Use of lower limb measurements in reconstructing stature among Shia Muslims. Internet J Biol Anthropol 2009;2:1628. 
2.  Bokariya P, Bokariya R, Gudadhe D, Shyamal A, Tirpude BH, Shende MR. The anthropometric measurement of humerus segments. J Forensic Med Toxicol 2011;28:535. 
3.  Bokariya P, Sontakke B, Waghmare JE, Tarnekar A, Tirpude BH, Shende MR. Original research paper the anthropometric measurements of tibia. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2012;34:322. 
4.  Sonali K, Radke A. Estimation of stature from the measurement of foot length, hand length and head length in Maharashtra region. Indian J Basic Appl Med Res 2012;1:7785. 
5.  Montagu MF, Ashley BJ. A Hand Book of Anthropometry. Springfield, IL, US: Charles C Thomas Publisher; 1960. p. 38. [Xi]. 
6.  Anas IY, Esomonu UG, Zagga AD. Prediction of stature of Hausa ethnic group using hand length and breadth. J Med Trop 2010;12:302. 
7.  Esomonu UG, Ijomone OM, Mba C, Oranusi A. Estimation of stature using arm span length amongst Bekwara ethnic group of Cross River State, Nigeria. Ann Bioanthropol 2015;3:558. 
8.  Lukpata PU, Esomonu UG, Ogan CA, Tessy EO. Estimation of stature from some selected cephalofacial parameters among teenage indigenes of Ogoja Local Government Area Cross River State. Br J Med Med Res 2016;12:17. 
9.  Lukpata PU, Ojim EO, Esomonu UG, Okori SO, Egwu AO, Ude R. Stature estimation from hand dimensions in Bekwarra ethnic group of Cross River State, Nigeria. Int J Sci Technol 2015;3:26770. 
10.  Modibbo MH, Ojo SA, Magaji MG, Esomonu UG. Estimation of stature in Hausa Neonates of Kano, Nigeria using anthropometric measurements of weight, foot length, and foot breadth. BEST J 2012;9:6773. 
11.  Ozaslan A, Iscan MY, Ozaslan I, Tugcu H, Koc S. Estimation of stature from body parts. Forensic Sci Int 2003;132:405. 
12.  Badkur P, Nath S. Use of regression analysis in reconstruction of maximum bone length and living stature from fragmentary measures of the ulna. Forensic Sci Int 1990;45:1525. 
13.  Holland TD. Estimation of adult stature from fragmentary tibias. J Forensic Sci 1992;37:12239. 
14.  Prasad R, Vettivel S, Jeyaseelan L, Isaac B, Chandi G. Reconstruction of femur length from markers of its proximal end. Clin Anat 1996;9:2833. 
15.  Kumar P, Shahnawaz K, Varma G. Study of estimation of stature by the length of femur. J Evol Med Dent Sci 2014;3:316672. 
16.  Chavan SK, Chavan KD, Mumbre SS, Makhani CS. Stature and percutaneus tibial length: A correlational study in Maharashtrian population. Indian J Forensic Med Pathol 2009;2:10912. 
17.  Siddiqui MA, Shah MA. Estimation of stature from long bones of Punjabis. Indian J Med Res 1944;32:1058. 
18.  Iscan MY. Global forensic anthropology in the 21 ^{st} century (Editorial). Forensic Sci Int 2001;117:16. 
19.  Iscan MY. Forensic anthropology of gender and body size (Editorial). Forensic Sci Int 2005;147:10712. 
20.  Kaore A, Kaore BP, Kamdi A, Kaore S. Stature estimation from tibial length. NJIRM 2012;3:516. 
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]
