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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 98-101

Determination of Cusp Number and Occlusal Groove Pattern in Mandibular Molars: A Preliminary Epidemiological Study in an Indian Population


1 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Science, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Public Health Dentistry, A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Science, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Audrey Madonna D'Cruz
Department of Public Health Dentistry, A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Nitte University, Mangalore - 575 018, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2349-5014.179323

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Teeth are excellent material in living and nonliving populations for anthropological, genetic, odontologic, and forensic investigations. The present study aims to study the number of a number of cusps in the first and second mandibular molar and to assess the frequency and expression of different types of occlusal groove pattern. The cross-sectional study is carried out. One hundred patients attending the Outpatient Department of the hospital were recruited for the study based on exclusion and inclusion criteria. Clinical examination was done, and the morphological details of the crown (the number of cusps) were recorded. Dental casts of the mandibular teeth were made. The occlusal grooves were highlighted by using Indian ink and observed under the 2× magnification for the groove pattern (+ or y type). Descriptive statistics were carried out for the study. In the case of mandibular first molar, the 5 cusp form was the most frequent occlusal configuration (82%) followed by 6 cusp variety (12%) and 4 cusp variety (4%) bilaterally. The predominant occlusal groove pattern seen in mandibular first molar was “y” shape (65%) followed by “+” pattern (28%). Hence, the most frequent occlusal surface configuration in case of first mandibular molar was “y5” form. In the case of mandibular second molar, the 4 cusp form was the most frequent occlusal configuration (86%), followed by 5 cusp type (12%) bilaterally. The predominant occlusal groove pattern seen in mandibular second molar was a “+” shape (85%) followed by “y” pattern (11%). Hence, the most frequent occlusal surface configuration in case of mandibular second molar was “+4” form. The study of dental morphological characteristics is important in forensic and anthropological research as it can provide information on the phylogenetic relationship between species, as well as variation and diversities within a population.


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