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   2020| January-March  | Volume 6 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 17, 2020

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative analysis of cephalofacial dimorphism among indigenous ethnic groups in Benue State, Nigeria
Joseph Igbo Enya, Onenson Nkanu Onen
January-March 2020, 6(1):12-17
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_49_19  
The face is an important physiognomic feature in humans, and facial anthropometric variables are valuable biometric physiognomies that vary with age, sex, and ethnicity. This study aimed to establish a standard for determining the extent of sexual dimorphism and study the distribution of basic face types by comparison with other ethnic groups in Benue State and Nigeria as a whole. A sample of 450 indigenous people from the Benue State volunteered to participate in this study. The cohort included 150 Tiv, 150 Idoma, and 150 Igede people, between the age group of 18 and 35 years. Participants were randomly recruited from the entire geographical locations of the state, using the inclusion criteria. Anthropometric variables were measured using a digital sliding caliper including facial length (FL) (measured from the trichion to the gnathion) and facial width (FW) (measured as the bizygomatic width, between the right and left zygion). Cephalofacial indices were calculated from these variables. The results revealed significant differences in some of the measured variables between males and females across the various ethnic groups in Benue State, including variation in FL and FW. The comparative results for various ethnicities in Benue State (Tiv, Idoma, and Igede people) also showed a positive correlation between FL and FW, which could be used to predict cephalofacial indices among Tiv, Idoma, and Igede ethnic groups in this area. These results indicate that the dominant facial index among Idoma and Igede people was leptoprosopic (long face) while that among Tiv people is mesoprosopic (round face). The current findings could be useful for elucidating the sex differences and ancestral relationships, as well as for forensic anthropology, reconstructive surgery, and anthropometric considerations for the three ethnic groups in Benue State, Nigeria.
  742 144 -
Study of autosomal short tandem repeat loci using ITO method in full-sibling identification
Li Yuan, Xu Xu, He Ren, Zhao Zhao, Tong Wang, Shicheng Hao, Jinpei Zhang, Yan Liu, Yan Xu
January-March 2020, 6(1):5-11
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.280895  
This study aimed to investigate the application of autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci using the ITO method and discriminant function algorithm for full-sibling (FS) identification. A total of 342 pairs of full siblings (FSs) and 3900 pairs of unrelated individuals (UIs) were genotyped at 51 STR loci. The groups were in accordance with discrimination power (DP) values and the number of loci, and the values of FS index (FSI) of FSs and UIs were calculated by the ITO method. The discriminant functions of FS–UI were established using the Fisher's discriminant analysis method with SPSS 19.0 software. All the lgFSI values in the FS and UI groups followed a normal distribution, and there were significant differences between the two pairs. A higher average DP value was associated with a more significant difference, as was a greater number of STR loci detected. Receiver operator characteristic curves showed that the accuracy of FS identification can be affected by both locus polymorphism and the number of loci detected. Comparing the rate of false positives and false negatives of discriminant function between the two groups, a higher average DP value and larger number of loci detected were associated with a lower rate of miscarriage of justice and were more helpful for FS–UI identification. The ITO-based discriminant analysis method has high applicability in FS–UI tests. Testing of a greater number of STR loci promotes FS identification.
  619 91 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Electronic data preservation and storage of evidence by blockchain
Hua Shang, Hui Qiang
January-March 2020, 6(1):27-36
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.280893  
In the face of the era of big data, how to ensure the authenticity of electronic data has become an important practical issue. Online preservation methods based on hash operation, time stamp, and blockchain technology can effectively guarantee the authenticity and security of electronic data. Blockchains are inherently traceable, de-centralized, and difficult to tamper with, which can be enough served as the basic technology of electronic data certification. Preservation by blockchain mainly includes the following links: platform registration and identity authentication, generation and transmission of electronic data, and storage of electronic data. Preservation by blockchain has higher security than centralized online security because of distributed storage. However, it should be acknowledged that the preservation by blockchain is not without risk. The court should adhere to the principle of individual review of each case and review the electronic data from its generation, transmission, reception, storage, and collection.
  563 102 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Sudden Natural Deaths in Ontario, Canada: A Retrospective Autopsy Analysis (2012–2016)
Jayantha C Herath, Olivia Liu
January-March 2020, 6(1):18-26
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_50_19  
This study was performed to identify the categories and distribution of sudden natural deaths (SNDs) in Ontario (ON) from January 2012 to December 2016 as no such reports have been published in ON, and the authors sought to find out the distribution of SND across ON by organ system, age, and sex. Three medicolegal databases were searched, and eight major categories of SND were identified and evaluated using multinomial logistic regression. During the 5-year period, 10,880 autopsies were performed on individuals aged 1–100, who died of sudden and natural causes. Over 800 causes of SNDs were recorded from January 2012 to December 2016. The largest category of SND was attributed to diseases and complications of the cardiovascular system (64.1%) followed by the respiratory system (9.1%), gastrointestinal system (6.9%), central nervous system (6.0%), metabolic diseases (3.8%), chronic alcoholism (3.5%), other (2.4%), infectious diseases (2.2%), and cancer (1.8%). The five most common causes of SND were also cardiovascular in origin, which included atherosclerotic heart disease (n = 2127, 19.5%), atherosclerotic and hypertensive heart disease (n = 711, 6.5%), myocardial infarction (n = 723, 6.6%), hypertensive heart disease (n = 518, 4.8%), and pulmonary embolism (n = 377, 3.5%). Determination of cause of death in natural deaths is an important part in death investigation, which can provide crucial information in the interest of public health by identifying public health risks and monitoring disease trends.
  512 110 -
A potential marker DYF371 for differentiating han population from non-han population in Chinese
Hailun Nan, Dejian Lu
January-March 2020, 6(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.280892  
DYF371 locus and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) defined as DYF371C or DYF371T were simultaneously examined for 142 Chinese unrelated male individuals, including 90 Han population and 52 minorities. In total, 37 SNP-short tandem repeat haplotypes were detected. Nine of these 37 haplotypes were unique (24.32%). The gene diversity and discrimination capacity values are 0.8321 and 0.2606, respectively. Furthermore, only five males (5.55%) in the Han samples were determined that they had one copy of allele with SNP T-type and three copies of alleles with SNP C-types, whereas 14 individuals (26.92%) were observed in minorities' samples. The genotype proportion comprising three distinguishing copies of the allele with SNP C-types in Han sample was greatly lower than that in the sample of minorities. Similar results were shown for allele 11C and 10C. Therefore, the alleles of DYF371 with SNP C-type have the potential to differentiate the Han and non-Han Chinese populations.
  453 109 -
CASE REPORTS
Forensic identification of missing persons using DNA from surviving relatives and femur bone retrieved from salty environment
Kofi Adjapong Afrifah, Alexander Badu-Boateng, Samuel Antwi-Akomeah, Eva Emefa Motey, Emmanuel Boampong, Peter Twumasi, Paul Poku Sampene, Augustine Donkor
January-March 2020, 6(1):40-44
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_48_19  
Human identification using forensic DNA profiling has made enormous advancement over the past two-and-half decades. Forensic DNA profiling provides enormous genetic data from a variety of biological materials and individuals to help solve many important criminal and civil cases that confront society. Under certain environmental conditions, the total deterioration of soft-tissue leaves skeletal remains as the only available sample for DNA testing to identify missing persons, victims of natural disasters, or exonerate suspect(s) in a criminal case. We report the findings of a case involving the human remains of a missing person submitted to the Forensic Science Laboratory of the Ghana Police Service for forensic DNA profiling in comparison to an alleged living relative of the deceased. DNA from the femur bone and buccal swabs of alleged relative of the deceased were extracted, quantified, and short tandem repeat (STR) profiled using Qiagen's Investigator kit, Applied Biosystem's Quantifiler trio, and GlobalFiler kits. Full STR profiles were generated for both the femur bone from the salty environment and the buccal swabs from the alleged relative. The femur bone was genetically identified to be that of the missing person. The remains were thus handed over to the relatives for final funeral rites and burial to bring closure to the long search for the missing person.
  221 48 -
Forensic identification of traumatic thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm: A surviving case report
Maoying Zhang, Jianhui Gao, Fang Shi, Jingyuan Ma, Chongya Huang, Shanzhi Gu
January-March 2020, 6(1):37-39
DOI:10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_40_19  
Traumatic thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm is a rare and has a high mortality rate. Forensic identification in a living individual is even more rare. We herein present the case involving a 25-year-old male who developed a thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm after a traffic accident. The debate, in this case, focused on whether a causal relationship was present between the traffic accident and the aortic pseudoaneurysm. Based on the patient's trauma history, clinical manifestations, clear evidence of chest trauma, surgical findings, and exclusion of potential diseases, we determined that a causal relationship was present between the trauma and the aortic pseudoaneurysm. We propose that potential autogenous diseases should be excluded in the future evaluation of similar cases.
  196 55 -
Identification of a driver from the analysis of specific injuries
Lu Li, Li-Ping Zhao, Ya-Ming Xiong, Li-Hua Li, Roger W Byard, Shi-Jun Hong
January-March 2020, 6(1):45-47
DOI:10.4103/1735-3327.280894  
Determining who was driving a vehicle is often an important part of the assessment of a crash because of the potentially significant medicolegal ramifications. A case is reported of a vehicle containing two occupants. The male occupant had a blood alcohol reading of 85 mg/100 ml and the female occupant (who claimed to be the driver) of 0 mg/100 ml. However, the injuries to the male were more consistent with an impact against the steering wheel and from the posterior displacement of the floor toward the driver's seat. The injuries sustained by the female occupant were less severe and fewer in number. Blood stains on the edge of the driver's window and the steering wheel were from the male occupant. It was concluded, therefore, that the male occupant had been the driver and not the female occupant as was being claimed. This result had significant implications in terms of insurance claims and potential criminal charges.
  156 42 -