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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2017| October-December  | Volume 3 | Issue 4  
    Online since January 11, 2018

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Analysis on applicability evaluation of forensic science standards in China
Hejuan Jiao, Xiaoyu Zheng, Yanbiao Zhao, Feng Hua, Hui Zheng
October-December 2017, 3(4):203-209
Standard applicability is the ability of a standard to be suitable for the prescriptive purpose under specified conditions. There is no mature applicability-evaluation index system of standards worldwide at present. We aim to construct the index system for evaluating the applicability of forensic science standard. The index system of applicability evaluation is proposed using a statistical analysis on the applicability of forensic science standards in China. We summarize the major problems and reasons in developing and revising the national and industry standards in China. Based on these, we put forward measures to improve standards' applicability, provide policy support for rectifying the standards, and lay the theoretical foundation for the construction, adjustment, and optimization of the forensic science standard system.
  1 1,397 185
Prediction of facial height, width, and ratio from thumbprints ridge count and its possible applications
Lawan Hassan Adamu, Samuel Adeniyi Ojo, Barnabas Danborno, Samuel Sunday Adebisi, Magaji Garba Taura
October-December 2017, 3(4):223-228
The fingerprints and face recognition are two biometric processes that comprise methods for uniquely recognizing humans based on certain number of intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. The objectives of the study were to predict the facial height (FH), facial width, and ratios from thumbprints ridge count and its possible applications. This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 457 participants were recruited. A fingerprint live scanner was used to capture the plain thumbprint. The facial photograph was captured using a digital camera. Pearson's correlation analysis was used for the relationship between thumbprint ridge density and facial linear dimensions. Step-wise linear multiple regression analysis was used to predict facial distances from thumbprint ridge density. The result showed that in males the right ulnar ridge count correlates negatively with lower facial width (LFW), upper facial width/upper FH (UFW/UFH), lower FH/FH (LFH/FH), and positively with UFH and UFW/LFW. The right and left proximal ridge counts correlate with LFW and UFH, respectively. In males, the right ulnar ridge count predicts LFW, UFW/LFW, UFW/UFH, and LFH/FH. Special upper face height I, LFW, height of lower third of the face, UFW/LFW was predicted by right radial ridge counts. LFH, height of lower third of the face, and LFH/FH were predicted from left ulnar ridge count whereas left proximal ridge count predicted LFW. In females only, the special upper face height I was predicted by right ulnar ridge count. In conclusion, thumbprint ridge counts can be used to predict FH, width, ratios among Hausa population. The possible application of fingerprints in facial characterization for used in human biology, paleodemography, and forensic science was demonstrated.
  1 2,199 213
Proposition on improving environmental forensic system in China
Huilei Wang, Yuanfeng Wang
October-December 2017, 3(4):229-236
In the early period of China, economy developed rapidly at the cost of environment. Recently, it is generally recognized that the heavily polluted environment not only puts a brake on economic development but also paces negative impact on people' health as well as probably next decades of generations. Accordingly, the latest Environmental Protection Law revised in 2014 makes a clear-cut division of environmental responsibility and regulates stricter penalties of breaching law. As the new environmental law is enforced gradually, environmental forensic is increasingly required in the process of ascertaining facts in judicial proceedings of environmental cases. Based on the outcomes of documentary analysis for all environmental cases judged on the basis of new environmental law, it is concluded that there still exists problems in the present system of environmental forensic. Thus, this paper is aimed to make proposition on improving Chinese environmental forensic system, which involves: (i) promoting capability of EFS to handle professional questions; (ii) develop price mechanism; (iii) multidepartments cooperate to establish unifying and complete EFS system; and(iv) enhance the probative value of results of EFS. Such protocol for amending present regulation on environmental forensic is of significant importance because a quality report of environmental forensic will contribute to provide strong probative evidence of culprits' activity of releasing contaminant into environment, degree of damages for victims, and above all, causality between the behavior of public nuisance and damages.
  - 1,252 138
Hyperspectral imaging technology for revealing the original handwritings covered by the same inks
Yuanyuan Lian, Luning Liang, Bing Li
October-December 2017, 3(4):210-216
This manuscript presents a preliminary investigation on the applicability of hyperspectral imaging technology for nondestructive and rapid analysis to reveal covered original handwritings. The hyperspectral imager Nuance-Macro was used to collect the reflected light signature of inks from the overlapping parts. The software Nuance1p46 was used to analyze the reflected light signature of inks which shows the covered original handwritings. Different types of black/blue ballpoint pen inks and black/blue gel pen inks were chosen for sample preparation. From the hyperspectral images examined, the covered original handwritings of application were revealed in 90.5%, 69.1%, 49.5%, and 78.6% of the cases. Further, the correlation between the revealing effect and spectral characteristics of the reflected light of inks at the overlapping parts was interpreted through theoretical analysis and experimental verification. The results indicated that when the spectral characteristics of the reflected light of inks at the overlapping parts were the same or very similar to that of the ink that was used to cover the original handwriting, the original handwriting could not be shown. On the contrary, when the spectral characteristics of the reflected light of inks at the overlapping parts were different to that of the ink that was used to cover the original handwriting, the original handwriting was revealed.
  - 1,665 229
Fundamental frequency statistics for young male speakers of mandarin
Honglin Cao, Yingjing Lei
October-December 2017, 3(4):217-222
In forensic speaker comparison (FSC), it is essential not only to evaluate the similarity between two (or more) samples, but also the typicality of the features in the relevant population. For the typicality, it is necessary that the population statistics related to the phonetic parameters be available. This article presents the statistics for the fundamental frequency (F0) of 100 young Chinese male speakers producing both reading and spontaneous speech. Five descriptive statistics of long-term F0, namely mean, median, mode, standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (CV = SD/mean), are shown in histograms and scatter diagrams. Results show that the distributions of the five statistics are near normal. The findings are compared with the literature and discussed with respect to forensic phonetic implications. This article concludes that the results for the F0 statistics in the present study can be used in FSC casework as reference data on F0 for the young male Chinese population.
  - 1,340 147
A novel analytical method of 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine and 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine in fluids of drug addicts using liquid-liquid extraction-gas chromatographic/nitrogen-phosphorous detection
Jing Chang, Bin Hao, Junyi Du, Hong Zhou, Hongxia Hao
October-December 2017, 3(4):181-190
In accordance with the research specifications and guidelines in China, we developed a novel experimental method to detect new piperazine-type drugs, such as 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine and 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine. In this study, a new pretreatment method and gas chromatography (GC)/nitrogen-phosphorus detector detection technique were used to characterize these two kinds of drugs in urine and blood samples. For the purpose of isolation of these trace drugs from the samples, liquid-liquid extraction/solid-phase extraction was modified and validated for this specific study. The pretreatment method presented in this paper has many advantages, such as high recovery rate, high extraction efficiency, high detection sensitivity, low limit of detection, and simple operation. The GC/NPD instrument is popular in most laboratories because it can meet the routine requirements of forensic science. All these aspects make this combination of sample pretreatment and GC/NPD technique the most suitable choice for drug detection in biological samples.
  - 2,164 1,351
Determination of periplocymarin in human blood and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
Chen Jian Xia, Wei Qing Tao, Chen Fan, Wu Hao, Fu Ying Qing, Wu Zhi Gui, Dai Xin Hua, Ye Yi, Yan You Yi, Liao Lin Chuan
October-December 2017, 3(4):191-196
A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of periplocymarin in human blood and urine was developed. The digoxin-d3 was used as an internal standard. Periplocymarin and digoxin-d3 (IS) were processed with ethyl acetate by liquid-liquid extraction. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODSIII C18 column with a 7 min gradient elution using methanol-ammonium formate (5 mmol/L) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min (65:35, v/v). The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using positive-ion mode electrospray ionization in selected reaction monitoring mode. The periplocymarin was well separated from the internal standard. Two calibration curves were linear within the concentration range 0.01-1 μg/mL. The limit of detection and quantification of blood and urine samples were both estimated at 0.005 and 0.01 μg/mL. The interday and intraday precisions, accuracy, and recovery were assessed to verify this method. The results showed that the method was suitable for the determination of periplocymarin in forensic toxicological analysis and clinical diagnosis.
  - 1,597 205
Nonnatural deaths of children under the age of 5 years in Ontario, Canada: A retrospective autopsy analysis of 10 years (2006-2015)
Syeda Sakina Rizvi, Jayantha C Herath
October-December 2017, 3(4):197-202
The goal of this study is to unravel the common patterns observed among nonnatural deaths of children under 5 years and suggest ways to prevent such unnecessary deaths. The study was confined to the province of Ontario to allow the identification of regional specific patterns. The database at the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario was searched for all pediatric deaths from the years 2006-2015. All nonnatural deaths for children under the age of 5 years, including sudden infant death syndrome, were selected for the study. Manner and cause of death along with the corresponding year were recorded in tables. In the 10-year period, 940 nonnatural deaths were identified in Ontario through autopsy records which are equal to approximately 36.7% of the total childhood deaths. There were 295 accidental cases (11.6%) and 71 homicides (2.8%). The leading causes of nonnatural childhood deaths in Ontario were drowning, traffic accidents, blunt trauma, and asphyxia. Nonnatural deaths are preventable through education and training of parents. Implementation of educational interventions can significantly reduce nonnatural deaths of children in Ontario.
  - 1,739 265
Analysis of indirect evidence in hit-and-run cases
Zhefeng Xu, Chunhao Wang
October-December 2017, 3(4):237-242
For personnel handling cases in public security bodies, evaluation of evidence is key to discover the fact and then to settle disputes. The process of evaluation shall be confirmed to rules of logic. Rules of logic are a set of judgment rules for people to reflect, induce, and deduce the development of law worldwide. Thus, evaluation of evidence shall be built on objective and rational logic deduction. Rules of logic applied in the investigation and judgment of evidence can help in finding a direct or indirect link between the evidence and the facts of an accident, thereby providing support and assistance for accident identification. It is particularly necessary to apply rules of logic to evaluate the indirect evidence chain in the investigation of hit-and-run traffic accident cases. This article demonstrates the specific application of such rules in the investigation of a serious hit-and-run traffic accident case. In the investigation process through the comprehensive analysis of and logical thinking around all indirect evidence, such as site inspection data, video monitoring data, witness testimony, and expert conclusions, and the combining of this with the direct evidence of the parties' statements, a complete chain of evidence for identifying a suspect's vehicle and the accident facts can be formed. The effective application of rules of logic in the evaluation of the indirect evidence chain in hit-and-run traffic accident cases provides more clues and narrows the scope of an investigation, improving its efficiency and accuracy, thereby helping to identify the facts of an accident.
  - 2,157 187