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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 23-30

Sex determination using cheiloscopy and mandibular canine index as a tool in forensic dentistry


1 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Saraswati-Dhanwantari Dental College and Hospital and Post-Graduate Research Institute, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saraswati-Dhanwantari Dental College and Hospital and Post-Graduate Research Institute, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication30-Mar-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abhishek Singh Nayyar
44, Behind Singla Nursing Home, New Friendsí Colony, Model Town, Panipat - 132 103, Haryana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jfsm.jfsm_21_17

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  Abstract 

Identification of a person's individuality and sex determination are important for legal as well as identification purposes. The aim of the present study was to check the reliability of cheiloscopy and mandibular canine index (MCI) in the determination of sex in an individual. The aim of this study is to analyze different lip patterns reproduced by the natural dye (vermilion) and lysochrome (Sudan Black II) dyes and to compare the MCI in males and females for the determination of sex and to check the reliability of cheiloscopy and MCI for the same. Latent lip prints were developed using natural dye (vermilion) and lysochrome (Sudan Black II) dyes and their patterns categorized according to Tsuchihashi's classification. MCI were calculated. Analysis of the two was performed. According to discriminant functional analysis, percentage accuracy for cheiloscopy in the determination of sex was found to be 55% while for MCI, the same value was 85%. Natural dye (vermilion) was found as an efficient dye compared to lysochrome (Sudan Black II) dyes for the development of latent lip prints. Both the dyes showed Type I lip print pattern to be common in males and females. Furthermore, all the parameters in MCI were found to be significant in the determination of sex in an individual. The results of the present study revealed MCI to be more reliable in the determination of sex than cheiloscopy.

Keywords: Cheiloscopy, latent lip prints, mandibular canine index, sex determination


How to cite this article:
Bhagyashree B, Gadodia P, Nayyar AS, Patil NN, Vinod Kumar M P, Murgod V, Paraye SS. Sex determination using cheiloscopy and mandibular canine index as a tool in forensic dentistry. J Forensic Sci Med 2018;4:23-30

How to cite this URL:
Bhagyashree B, Gadodia P, Nayyar AS, Patil NN, Vinod Kumar M P, Murgod V, Paraye SS. Sex determination using cheiloscopy and mandibular canine index as a tool in forensic dentistry. J Forensic Sci Med [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Jun 25];4:23-30. Available from: http://www.jfsmonline.com/text.asp?2018/4/1/23/229006


  Introduction Top


Identification of a person's individuality and sex determination are important for legal as well as identification purposes. [1] The grooves present on the human lips are unique to each individual and can be used to determine the identity of the individual. [2] Cheiloscopy (from the Greek cheilos meaning lip and skopein meaning to observe) is the name given to the lip print studies. Lip prints are unique and do not change during the lifetime of an individual. [3] The edges of the lips have sebaceous glands with sweat glands in between. [4] Thus, secretions of oil and moisture from them enable the development of "latent" lip prints analogous to latent fingerprints which can be used in the identification of a person's individuality and in the determination of sex. [1],[2],[4],[5],[6]

In cases of mass disasters, where there is the destruction of soft tissues or during forensic or archaeological excavations, it is often the case that not all the bones of an individual are recovered. In such instances, the skull and teeth often provide the identification remains. Teeth are known to be unique being made of the most enduring mineralized tissues in the human body. Teeth are extremely durable even at high temperatures and may be identified even when the rest of the body has undergone decomposition. [7],[8] Canines are better likely to survive severe trauma among all the teeth including air disasters, hurricanes, or conflagration. These findings indicate that mandibular canines can be considered the "key teeth" for personal identification. [9]

The aim of the present study was to check the reliability of cheiloscopy and mandibular canine index (MCI) in the determination of sex in an individual.


  Materials and Methods Top


After the obtainment of Institutional ethical clearance, 50 male and 50 female patients including students were selected from the outpatient department of Saraswati-Dhanwantari Dental College and Hospital and Postgraduate Research Institute, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India in the age range of 18-30 years. A written informed consent was obtained from all the patients. Patients with known allergy to lipstick and with cracked or cuts on lips were excluded. For cheiloscopy procedure [Figure 1], a long-lasting lipstick was applied on the lower lip [Figure 2]. The patients were asked to hold a drinking glass such that lip would be in contact with it to collect the lip prints [Figure 3]. Similarly, two latent lip prints were collected. On the first latent lip print, lysochrome (Sudan Black II) dye was applied [Figure 4] while on another, natural dye (vermilion) was applied until the lip print was reproduced [Figure 5]. [10] These lip prints were, then, transferred to a white bond paper with the help of cellophane tape and analyzed [Figure 6] and [Figure 7]. Pattern of lip print was determined by using Tsuchihashi's classification as follows: [11],[12]
Figure 1: Armamentarium for cheiloscopy

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Figure 2: Application of lipstick on lower lip

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Figure 3: Collection of lip print on glass

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Figure 4: Reproducing latent lip print on glass using Natural dye (Vermilion)

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Figure 5: Reproducing latent lip print on glass using lysochrome (Sudan Black II)

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Figure 6: Transferred lip print using cellophane tape reproduced with natural dye (Vermilion) on white paper

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Figure 7: Transferred lip print using cellophane tape reproduced with lysochrome (Sudan Black II) on white paper

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Type I: complete straight grooves;

Type Iʹ: partial straight grooves;

Type II: branched grooves;

Type III: intersected grooves;

Type IV: reticular grooves; and

Type V: undifferentiated grooves.

After observing different pattern of lip prints developed, comparison for better-reproduced lip print was observed between two dyes on the basis of criteria good, fair, and poor as follows: [10]

Good: Lip outline and lip grooves that could easily be studied;

Fair: Lip outline that could be noticed but with less clarity of lip grooves; and

Poor: Lip outline could still be noticed, but lip grooves could not be appreciated.

For MCI, alginate impression of upper and lower arches was made to prepare the casts [Figure 8]. Individuals having Angle's class I molar relationship was selected, and the ones with lower anterior crowding and spacing were excluded. With the help of digital Vernier caliper, mesiodistal width of the mandibular canines [Figure 9] and intercanine width [Figure 10] were measured. Observed MCI was calculated using the following formula: [13],[14],[15],[16],[17]
Figure 8: Armamentarium for determining mandibular canine index

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Figure 9: Measuring mesiodistal width of mandibular canine using digital Vernier caliper

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Figure 10: Measuring mandibular intercanine width using digital Vernier caliper

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MCI = Mesiodistal width of mandibular canine

Mandibular intercanine width

The standard MCI was used as a cutoff point to differentiate between males and females which were obtained from the measurements taken from the samples by applying the following formula: [13],[14],[15],[16],[17]

Standard MCI = (Mean male MCI-Standard deviation [SD]) + (Mean female MCI + SD)/2.

The results obtained were, then, statistically analyzed.

Statistical tests used

Comparison of lip print patterns in males and females with Type of lip print by the Natural dye (Vermilion) and Lysochrome (Sudan Black II) dye was carried out using Chi-square test. Comparison of Lysochrome (Sudan Black II) and Natural dye (Vermilion) for ascertaining the quality of lip print patterns obtained based on lip outline, and lip grooves was, also, made using Chi-square test. Comparison of males and females with different parameters of mandibular canines was done using t-test. The discriminant functional analysis was used to arrive at the percentage accuracy of sex determination based on cheiloscopy (lip prints) and MCI.


  Results Top


In the present study, using natural dye (vermilion), Type I pattern was observed in 34% of males and 36% of females, Type Iʹ was found in 14% of males and 22% of females, Type II was found in 20% of males and 10% of females, Type III was found in 18% of males and 16% of females, Type IV was found in 8% of males and 14% of females and Type V pattern was found in 6% of males and 2% of females. Using lysochrome (Sudan Black II), Type I pattern was observed in 42% of males and 36% of females, Type Iʹ was found in 12% of males and 20% of females, Type II was found in 18% of males and 8% of females, Type III was found in 12% of males and 12% of females, Type IV was found in 12% of males and 14% of females and Type V pattern was found in 4% of males and 10% of females. Lip prints produced by lysochrome (Sudan Black II) showed predominantly Type I pattern in males and females. On comparing males and females with the types of lip prints using Chi-square test, the results were found to be statistically insignificant with corresponding P values being P = 0.4851 and 0.4777, respectively, for the two dyes as shown in [Table 1] and [Table 2]. Latent lip prints developed immediately with lysochrome (Sudan Black II) and natural dye (vermilion) were compared based on the identification of lip outline and grooves and statistically evaluated wherein the results were found to be statistically significant with P = 0.00001 as shown in [Table 3]. On discriminant functional analysis [Table 4], percentage accuracy was calculated depending on the observed and predicted classification as shown in [Table 5] 66% of males could be correctly predicted and 44% of females were correctly identified. Thus, the overall percentage of accuracy for sex determination of cheiloscopy was found to be 55%.
Table 1: Comparison of lip print patterns in males and females with type of lip print by natural dye (vermilion) using Chi-square test


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Table 2: Comparison of lip print patterns in males and females with type of lip print by lysochrome (sudan black II) using Chi-square test


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Table 3: Comparison of lysochrome (Sudan black II) and natural dye (vermilion) using Chi-square test


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Table 4: Discriminant function analysts for sex prediction


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Table 5: Percentage accuracy of sex determination based on lip prints


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MCI were evaluated in males and females with age ranging from 18 to 30 years and with a mean age of 22 years and it was observed that the mesiodistal width of the right mandibular canine was found to be statistically significant being greater in males than in females with the mean value of 6.99 (±0.26) in males and 6.50 (±0.47) in females (P = 0.0001). The mesiodistal width of left mandibular canine was also found to be statistically significant being greater in males than in females with the mean value of 6.93 (±0.23) in males and 6.45 (±0.44) in females (P = 0.0001) [Table 6]. The intercanine width had a mean value of 26.07 (±1.60) in males, and 25.21 (±1.53) in females and these results were also found to be statistically significant being greater in males than in females. The coefficient of variance was found to be lower in males than in females while calculating the mesiodistal width in case of both right and left mandibular canines while in case of MCI and inter-canine width, it was found to be higher in males than in females with significant P values (P = 0.0001 for MCI and 0.0073 for intercanine width) as shown in [Table 6]. The results of MCI were found to be statistically significant with P = 0.0001 and with a mean value of 0.27 (±0.01) in males and 0.26 (±0.01) in females for right mandibular canine while a mean value of 0.27 (±0.01) in males and 0.26 (±0.01) in females for the left mandibular canine as shown in [Table 6]. Based on these values, the standard value of MCI was found to be 0.265 as per the above formula. Thus, this value acted as a cutoff value for differentiation of males and females with all the values up to the limit of the standard value of MCI (0.265) reported as females and above as males. On discriminant functional analysis [Table 7], percentage accuracy was calculated depending on the observed and predicted classification as shown in [Table 8] 75% of males could be correctly predicted and 61% of females were correctly identified. Thus, the overall percentage of accuracy for sex determination of MCI was found to be 85%.
Table 6: Comparison of males and females with different parameters of mandibular canines using t-test


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Table 7: Discriminant function analysts for sex prediction


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Table 8: Percentage accuracy of sex determination based on mandibular canine index


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  Discussion Top


In the past decades, several different techniques of identification developed including finger prints, bite marks, anthropometry, dactyloscopy, postmortem reports, measurement of height, differentiation by blood grouping and the latest to add DNA analysis. DNA analysis can be of significant assistance in establishing the correct identity of a person. [18],[19],[20] Similarly, lip prints are considered to be a very useful forensic investigation and personal identification tool analogous to fingerprints. [21],[22] The identification of latent lip print evidence is often considered the key in solving a crime. [23],[24]

Latent lip prints have been developed by using several materials such as fluorescent light, UV light, fluorescent dye, and natural dyes. Santos was the first to establish the technique and divided fissures and lines in the lips into two different groups (simple and compound) with each group further sub-divided into eight sub-types. [10] Suzuki and Tsuchihashi, [11],[12] later, considered six different types of grooves that included complete vertical, incomplete vertical, branched, intersected, reticular, and irregular patterns. Renaud studied the lips in halves, i.e., left and right and classified the grooves according to their form including complete vertical, incomplete vertical, complete bifurcated, incomplete bifurcated, complete branched, incomplete branched, reticular, X or comma form, horizontal and the last variant was specified for any other form. [22]

In the present study, lip print patterns were analyzed by using Tsuchihashi's classification [11],[12] as it is the most widely used classification. In the present study, in the lip prints produced by the natural dye (vermilion), Type I was found to be the most common lip print pattern found in males followed by Type II, Type III, Type I', and Type IV while Type V was the least commonly found a pattern. In females, Type I was the predominant pattern found followed by Type I', Type III, Type IV and Type II and Type V was the least commonly found lip print pattern. In the lip prints reproduced by using lysochrome (Sudan Black II), Type I was the most common lip print pattern found in males followed by Type II, Type III, Type I', Type IV, and Type V. In females, Type I was the predominant pattern found followed by Type I', Type IV, Type III, Type V, and Type II was the least commonly found pattern. Thus, in both males and females, Type I was the predominant pattern found, whereas Type V and Type II were the least found patterns in males and females, respectively. The findings of the present study were consistent with the findings of the studies conducted by Tsuchihashi, [12] Vahanwala, [25] Nagasupriya et al., [26] Amith et al., [27] Vats et al., [28] Bansal et al., [29] and Shivaramu et al. [30] The findings of the studies conducted by Dwivedi et al.[31] and Kapoor [32] were, however, in contrast with the findings of the present study as they had found Type II as the predominant pattern in both males and females while the least common patterns found were Type I, Type Iʹ, and Type III.

On comparing natural dye (vermilion) and lysochrome (Sudan Black II) using parameter of good, fair, and poor, lip prints developed by the natural dye (vermilion) were found to be better than lysochrome (Sudan Black II). Furthermore, the easy availability and cost-effectiveness of the natural dye (vermilion) make it a better substitute for lysochrome (Sudan Black II) with the added advantage of it being associated with easy reproducibility and clarity of the prints reproduced. Similar observations were made in the study conducted by Singh et al. [10] They had found natural dye (vermilion) significantly better than lysochrome (Sudan Black II). However, there are no reported studies on the use of vermilion powder to be used as a natural dye (vermilion) as was done in the present study. In the study conducted by Kumar et al., [19] fluorescent dye was found to be better than lysochrome (Sudan Black II). In the study conducted by Castello et al., [24] a comparison between Sudan Black III, oil red O and Sudan Black II concluded with Sudan Black II to be better than Sudan Black III and oil red O.

Lip prints, however, are produced by the mobile portion of the lip, thus, the same individual can give a different type of lip prints. Smudging of lip prints is another limitation. Furthermore, relaxation and contraction of lip muscles vary the lip prints obtained from the same individual at different times. [27]

The determination of sex is of utmost significance in case of mass disasters where bodies are often damaged beyond recognition and lip prints can be used as identifying tool. Sexual dimorphism refers to systemic differences in the form (size, shape, and appearance) between individuals of different sexes in the same species. [33] The morphological differences of the teeth can be applied to identify the sex from dental remains. The usefulness of the canines as an aid in sex determination by odontometric analyzes in forensic dentistry, for example, is supported by their high level of survival in the dentition.

Mandibular canine is considered as the key tooth in identifying sex as it is the last tooth to be lost in aging and associated disease processes and the ones which are seen at younger ages and has better chances of survival for lifetime of an individual. [15] In the present study, the mesiodistal widths of the right and left mandibular canines were found to be statistically significant being greater in males than in the females. The findings of the present study were in accordance with the results of the studies conducted by Kaushal et al., [14] Reddy et al., [15] Ahmed et al., [16] Acharya et al., [17] Hasim [34] Singh et al., [35] and Hosmani et al. [36] found the greater difference between right and left mandibular canines, but it was found to be statistically significant.

In the present study, the results were found to be statistically significant on comparing the mandibular intercanine width between the males and females. This finding was, again, in accordance with the findings of the studies conducted by Kaushal et al., [14] Ahmed et al., [16] Acharya et al., [17] and Singh et al. [35] In contrast, a study by Shaliputra and Wanjari [37] found statistically insignificant mandibular intercanine width when compared between males and females. In the study conducted by Hosmani et al., [36] mandibular intercanine width was found to be marginally higher in males in comparison with females, although, the results were not found to be statistically significant.

The results were found to be statistically significant on comparing the MCI of both right and left mandibular canines between males and females. This finding, too was in accordance with the findings of the studies conducted by Kaushal et al. [14] and Reddy et al. [15] A study conducted by Acharya et al., [17] though, found MCI of the right and left mandibular canines to be statistically insignificant. Similar findings were found in the study conducted by Singh et al. [35] Hosmani et al. [36] also showed the statistically insignificant difference between males and females using MCI of right and left mandibular canines.

The overall accuracy for sex determination was 58% including 64% for the males while 52% for the females. Rao et al. [13] found that 84.3% of males and 85.7% of females could be discriminated correctly with respect to sex. In the study conducted by Yadav et al., [38] males were detected correctly in 83.3% and females in 81%. The overall accuracy in sex determination was found to be 82.2%. In the study conducted by Muller et al., [39] the percentage accuracy in sex determination was found to be 51%. Reddy et al. [15] achieved 82% accuracy in sex determination in a recent study. In the study conducted by Hosmani et al., [36] the percentage of estimating the sex accurately was 40% and 50% for males and females, respectively, when the standard MCI was used. The study conducted by Acharya et al. [17] obtained accuracy ranging between 51.23% and 53.20% consistent with the results of the present study. The major constraints using MCI include crowding or, misalignment of teeth.

In the present study, the discriminant functional analysis revealed an overall percentage accuracy for cheiloscopy in the determination of sex to be 55% while for MCI, the same value was 85%. The results of the present study revealed MCI to be more reliable in the determination of sex than cheiloscopy. The present study however concludes with the need for further studies to be conducted with larger sample sizes and an adequate representation from populations from different regions and ethnic backgrounds to come to more valid conclusions.


  Conclusion Top


The search for invisible or latent prints at a crime scene requires increasingly simpler, more sensitive, and effective methods. It is of paramount importance that the method used permitted subsequent analyses. Latent lip print techniques and methods need to be standardized, however, and newer techniques should be explored to widen its horizon to parallel its use with fingerprints. However, in mass disaster, when these lip prints cannot support for identification, hard tissues like teeth, especially mandibular canines which remain for the longest period can be used and based on the morphology and size of the teeth, sex identification can be done with a high degree of accuracy.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
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