• Users Online: 271
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 222-228

Estimation of Maximum Tibia Length from its Measured Anthropometric Parameters in a Nigerian Population


Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Cross River University of Technology, Okuku Campus, Calabar, Cross River, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication9-Jan-2017

Correspondence Address:
Esomonu Godfrey Ugochukwu
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Cross River University of Technology, Okuku Campus, Calabar, Cross River
Nigeria
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2349-5014.197928

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Reliable estimation of stature from skeletal remains will continue to play an important role in assessing a variety of forensic anthropological and archaeological issues. In the present study, we studied and collated data on the morphometry of the tibia as well as analyzing its segment that shows significant correlation with its maximum length and consequently formulating linear regression equations for estimating maximum tibia length (MTL) which is specific for the Nigeria population. A total number of 68 intact adult human tibia bones were used (35 right and 33 left). Thirteen anthropometric parameters were measured including the MTL. The mean differences between right and left bones of all the measured parameter were not statistically significant except for the mean shaft circumference. The correlation coefficient between MTL and the bicondylar tibial width (BTW), anterior-posterior intercondylar diameter (APID), anterior-posterior diameter of medial condyle (APDMC), midshaft transverse diameter (MSTD), and distal articular surface length (DASL) were seen to be significant (P < 0.05) only in the right tibia; therefore, the linear regression equations for estimation of MTL from these parameters for the right tibia were also significant (P < 0.05). The results of our study concluded that it is possible to estimate the maximum length of the right tibia from the BTW, APID, APDMC, MSTD, and DASL with relative accuracy. Our study may be useful for forensic investigations for the identification of the remains of unknown bodies in a Nigerian population.

Keywords: Correlation, maximum tibia length, Nigeria, regression equations, tibia


How to cite this article:
Ugochukwu EG, Ugbem LP, Ijomone OM, Ebi OT. Estimation of Maximum Tibia Length from its Measured Anthropometric Parameters in a Nigerian Population. J Forensic Sci Med 2016;2:222-8

How to cite this URL:
Ugochukwu EG, Ugbem LP, Ijomone OM, Ebi OT. Estimation of Maximum Tibia Length from its Measured Anthropometric Parameters in a Nigerian Population. J Forensic Sci Med [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Aug 25];2:222-8. Available from: http://www.jfsmonline.com/text.asp?2016/2/4/222/197928


  Introduction Top


Estimation of stature from various body parameters has always been of great interest in the field of forensic science and physical anthropology because stature is a major component of the human biological profile which is necessary in the identification of persons who might have fallen victim of mass disaster, mass burial, or even in crime-related forensic cases. Furthermore, in situ ations involving the profiling of individuals that are missing, the knowledge of stature of the individual is also of great importance. The positive correlation between stature and length of long bones of the human body made it feasible to employ the maximum length of these bones in reconstructing and estimating the stature of unknown individuals.[1],[2],[3] The estimation of bone length from segments of long bones or data obtained from the morphometric parameters of these long bones have also been studied by many researchers. The knowledge of the measurements of these segments has also been employed in determining the maximum length of long bones such as humerus, femur, tibia, and fibula.[4],[5],[6],[7] From these previous studies, it was shown that stature can reliably be estimated from those morphometric features of long bone fragments that correlated well with the long bones length, especially if a linear regression equation has previously been derived for that particular long bone. Although intact long bones are most ideal in estimation of the stature of unidentified individual, in forensic cases where natural disasters present bone fragments, researchers have deemed it necessary to develop regression equations from these bone fragments to use it to estimate the length of the intact long bone from which the stature of the individual can be further derived.[4],[7]

Several anthropological reports have always reiterated that estimation of stature is more accurate if regression formulae are population specific. Population-specific linear regression equations for stature estimation using various body parameters and morphometric study of various long bones have been documented in several studies for the Nigerian population.[5],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14] Esomonu et al., in 2013, presented regression equations for estimation of the length of the humerus from its morphometry in a Nigerian population.[4] In deriving the regression equations for the length of the humerus of the right and left sides, they revealed that both the anatomical neck circumference (ANC) and the midshaft diameter were found to be significant in estimating the maximum length of the humerus; they further reported that on the right side, only the ANC exhibited significant correlation, while on the left side, both the ANC and the most distal point of trochlea humeri exhibited significant correlation.[4]

In the present study, we studied and collated data on the morphometry of the tibia as well as analyzing its segment that shows significant correlation with its maximum length and consequently formulating linear regression equations for estimating maximum tibia length (MTL), which are specific for the Nigerian population. Estimating MTL using the linear regression formulae that were derived in the present study will be the most appropriate formulae available at present for the Nigerian population since literature is yet to be available for such estimation in a Nigerian population.

The tibia is one of the long bones of the leg. It is the larger of the two leg bones, lying medial to the fibula bone. It is composed of two extremities and a shaft. The proximal extremity articulates with the femur to form the knee joint while the distal extremity and the distal end of the fibula articulate with the talus of the foot to form the ankle joint.


  Materials and Methods Top


Method of collection of data

The tibia bones were obtained from the Anatomy Department Museum of the following universities in Nigeria:

  1. Cross River University of Technology, Okuku Campus
  2. Enugu State University of Science and Technology
  3. Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki.


In this study, a total number of 68 intact adult human tibia bones (35 right and 33 left tibia bones) were selected for the study. The rejected bones were either incomplete or had pathological conditions, deformations, or fractured or had parts that were putrefied and disintegrated and so did not make them suitable for this study.

The bones that were selected for the study had completely closed epiphyseal plates indicating that they belonged to adults. They were also identified as right or left bones before measurements were taken.

Measurement procedures

Measurements for the MTL were taken using the osteometric board. Anthropometric tape was used to measure all circumferences, while Digital Vernier Caliper (Sealey Professional Tools TM, United Kingdom; accurate to 0.01 mm) was used to measure the distance between two bony landmarks. Thirteen morphometric parameters were taken into consideration as shown in [Figure 1]. Measurements were made based on standardized methods.[15],[16] The following measurements were obtained:
Figure 1: The following measurements of different anthropometric parameters of the tibia bone: (a) Maximum tibia length, (b) bicondylar tibial width, (c) anterior-posterior intercondylar diameter, (d) anterior-posterior diameter of medial condyle, (e) transverse diameter of medial condyle, (f) anterior-posterior distance of lateral condyle, (g) transverse diameter of lateral condyle, (h) intercondylar distance, (i) proximal shaft diameter, (j) midshaft transverse diameter, (k) midshaft circumference (l) distal shaft diameter, (m) distal articular surface length

Click here to view


  1. MTL is measured as the maximum distance from the highest point of the upper part of the tibia to the lowest point of the tibia using the osteometric board
  2. Bicondylar tibial width (BTW) is measured as the maximum transverse distance from the lateral side of the lateral condyle to the medial side of the medial condyle using the Digital Vernier Caliper
  3. Anterior-posterior intercondylar diameter (APID) is measured as the maximum distance from the anterior intercondylar area to the posterior intercondylar area
  4. Anterior-posterior diameter of medial condyle (APDMC) is measured as the maximum anterior-posterior distance of the medial condyle
  5. Transverse diameter of medial condyle (TDMC) is measured as the maximum distance from the medial side of the medial condyle to the medial intercondylar tubercle of intercondylar eminence
  6. Anterior-posterior distance of lateral condyle (APDLC) is measured as the maximum anterior-posterior distance of the lateral condyle
  7. Transverse diameter of lateral condyle (TDLC) is measured as the maximum distance from the lateral side of the lateral condyle to the lateral intercondylar tubercle of the intercondylar eminence
  8. Intercondylar distance (ID) is measured as the maximum distance from the medial intercondylar tubercle to the lateral intercondylar tubercle
  9. Proximal shaft diameter (PSD) is measured as the maximum transverse distance of the proximal part of the shaft just inferior to the tibial tuberosity
  10. Midshaft transverse diameter (MSTD) is measured as the maximum transverse distance of the midpoint of the shaft
  11. Mid shaft circumference (MSC) is measured as the maximum circumference at the mid length of the shaft
  12. Distal shaft diameter (DSD) is measured as the maximum transverse distance of the lower end of the shaft
  13. Distal articular surface length (DASL) is measured as the maximum transverse distance of the inferior surface of the tibia.


Statistical analysis

Data obtained from anthropometric measurements were analyzed by descriptive statistics and expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). A comparison of differences between left and right tibia was performed using Student's t-test.

Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to express the relationship between the maximum length of the tibia and other parameters. Furthermore, linear regression analysis was performed and regression equation formulated for the prediction of the maximum length of the bone from the other parameters. Statistical significances in all cases were noted at P < 0.05. GraphPad Prism 5 (version 5.03 GraphPad Inc., USA) was the statistical software used for analysis.


  Results Top


The results of this study are presented as descriptive statistics (mean ± SD), with their respective standard errors of estimate (SEE) for the 13 different anthropometric parameters for the right and left tibia separately [Table 1] whereas [Table 2] shows the morphometric values of the tibia parameter irrespective of the side of the Tibia bone. The mean maximum length of the right tibia was 40.30 ± 4.32 cm while that of the left tibia was 40.80 ± 3.91 cm. The mean differences of all the measured anthropometric parameters were not statistically significant except for the MSC. All SE of estimates were well below 1.0 [Table 1].
Table 1: Morphometric values of the right and left tibia bone from a Nigerian population

Click here to view
Table 2: Morphometric values of the tibia parameter irrespective of the side of the bone of a Nigerian population

Click here to view


The correlation coefficient between MTL and other tibia morphometric parameters is shown in [Table 3]. For the right tibia, MTL was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the BTW, APID, APDMC, MSTD, and DASL. However, for the left tibia, the MTL showed no significant correlation at P < 0.05. When the values were pooled irrespective of sides, BTW, APID, APDMC, MSTD, and DASL correlated significantly with MTL (P < 0.05).
Table 3: Correlation coefficient (r) between maximum tibia length and other tibia anthropometric parameters

Click here to view


The linear regression equations for estimation of MTL from its measured parameters are shown in [Table 4]. For the right tibia, the parameters which showed significant correlation with MTL also presented significant (P < 0.05) linear regression equations for the estimation of the MTL. These parameters include BTW, APID, APDMC, MSTD, and DASL. For the left tibia, since none of the corresponding tibia anthropometric parameters significantly correlated with its MTL, none of the linear regression equations derived was statistically significant at P < 0.05. Irrespective of the side, the same tibia parameters that showed significant correlation with the right tibia MTL also correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with the pooled MTL value. Thus, the linear regression equation derived from the pooled values irrespective of the side for the BTW, APID, APDMC, MSTD, and DASL was statistically significant.
Table 4: Linear regression equation for estimation of maximum tibia length from measured anthropometric parameters of Nigerian tibia bones

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


The tibia is one of the long bones of the human body whose role in anthropological research cannot be over-emphasized due to its resistance to disintegration and its ability to still retain its anatomical form long after death.[17],[18],[19] Tibia bone morphometric parameters are also considered in forensic cases where stature is needed to confirm the identity of unknown and unclaimed human remains; this is carried out by establishing linear regression equations in relation to the maximum length of the tibia.[20],[21],[22] In the present study, the morphometric tibia parameters were correlated with the MTL with the view of establishing a linear regression equation which can be employed in forensic cases whereby the tibia bone retrieved is fragmentary.

Regression analysis is an ideal method for establishing the relationship that exists between the length of the long bones and the stature of individuals and between the measured anthropometric parameters of the long bone fragments and their maximum length.[23]

It is a known fact that the importance of the linear regression formulae that were designed by Trotter and Gleser for the estimation of an individual stature cannot be over-emphasized [24] Nevertheless, it has been reported that all regression formulae employed in stature estimation should be population-specific.[25],[26] As such, the regression formulae generated in the present study are meant only for the Nigerian population although their application and comparison with that of other population are relevant for comparison purposes in forensic anthropology and human anatomy. In forensic cases, long bone length is also employed in the estimation of an unknown individual's stature which is very essential in the assessment of health, sexual dimorphism, and the general body size that trends along with given populations.[27] The estimation of living stature using linear regression equation has successfully been done with the tibia bone length.[20] Thus, the estimation of the stature of an unknown individual from the bones can help in the identification of missing persons from recovered bony remains.[28]

In our study, the data obtained from the morphology of the tibia were sex-pooled although it has been advocated by anthropologists that the sex of the individual must always be considered to obtain higher accuracy in stature estimation.[29],[30] Petersen's study revealed that on the contrary, the differences of the femur lengths were not dependent on sex;[31] hence, based on his report and the fact that the gender of the available tibia was not known, the present study was carried out on tibia bones of unknown gender.

Several authors have derived linear regressions to estimate the maximum length of long bones from the measurement of its fragments in different populations.[4], 5, [32],[33],[34] In the present study, regression equations were derived to estimate the maximum length of the tibia from the measured parameters of the right tibia and the pooled values irrespective of the side from the BTW, APID, APDMC, MSTD, and DASL values of the parameters. These parameters showed significant correlation with the MTL but the maximum length of the left tibia showed no significant correlation with any of the measured parameters as such none of the linear regression equations derived for the left tibia from its measured parameter was statistically significant, and therefore, none of the equations can be relied on for the estimation of its maximum length in a Nigerian population. For the Kenyan population, Mandela et al. derived regression equations to measure the length of the tibia from dimensions of its distal articular facets using the right and left sides separately. Their study did demonstrate moderate correlations between the dimensions of the distal tibia and its length whereby positive correlation was noted when the tibia length was compared to the width of the tibial plafond, the breadth of the medial malleolus, and the height of the fibular incisura.[35] However, these morphometric parameters were not considered in the present study.

The MTL was estimated from the linear regression equations and compared with the observed mean MTL in the present study [Table 5] and it was observed that the difference between the estimated MTL from the observed MTL was not significant (P< 0.05). It implies that the estimation of MTL from the BTW, APID, APDMC, MSTD, and DASL using linear regression equations can only be reliable with the right tibia or when the tibia is considered irrespective of the side. Thus, the present study provides regression formulae for estimation of the maximum right tibia length from its measured parameters. This suggests that when either of the BTW, APID, APDMC, MSTD, and DASL are available in any fragmentary tibia bone in a Nigerian population, then the formulae can be used to establish the MTL.
Table 5: Mean of the difference between observed maximum tibia length and estimated maximum tibia length

Click here to view


From the statistical analysis of the morphometry of the tibia, the mean length of the right side tibia is 40.30 ± 4.32 cm and that of the left side tibia is 40.80 ± 3.91 cm [Table 1]. When both sides were considered irrespective of sides, the mean was found to be 40.50 ± 4.08 cm [Table 2]. These values are higher than the reported value for the Kenyans tibia length.[35] In that study, the authors revealed a mean value of 38.2 ± 2.75 cm for the MTL. A study on the Central Indian population also revealed a value of 371.30 ± 23.20 mm for the right tibia and a value of 379.41 ± 18.90 mm for the left tibia. Both values were lower than the reported values for the right and left tibia in the present study.[22] No statistically significant difference was found in the mean MTL between the right and left. In addition, of the other 12 parameters measured, only the MSC showed statistically significant difference between the right and left tibia. This similarity between the right and left tibia values was also noted for the Central Indian population.[22] Of the three anthropometric indices calculated by these authors, which include cross-sectional index, cnemicus index, and length-thickness index, only the variation in the cross-sectional index values showed statistically significant difference when compared between sides.


  Conclusion Top


Reliable estimation of stature from skeletal remains will continue to play an important role in assessing a variety of forensic anthropological and archaeological issues. Most investigators rely on regression techniques to estimate stature from long bones because of their simplicity; however, if skeletal remains are in fragments, stature estimation can still be obtained by first deriving the length of the bones from the available fragments. The results of our study concluded that it is possible to estimate the maximum length of the right tibia from the measures of its BTW, APID, APDMC, MSTD, and DASL with relative accuracy. Our study may have direct applications in forensic, anthropometric, and also archaeological investigations for the identification of the remains of unknown bodies using linear regression equations in a Nigerian Population.

Further study should be encouraged as these are just preliminary data formulae available for the Nigerian population as no other literature exist for estimation of the MTL for the Nigerian Population.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Mall G, Hubig M, Büttner A, Kuznik J, Penning R, Graw M. Sex determination and estimation of stature from the long bones of the arm. Forensic Sci Int 2001;117:23-30.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Wright LE, Vásquez MA. Estimating the length of incomplete long bones: Forensic standards from Guatemala. Am J Phys Anthropol 2003;120:233-51.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Steele DG, McKern TW. A method for assessment of maximum long bone length and living stature from fragmentary long bones. Am J Phys Anthropol 1969;31:215-27.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Esomonu UG, Taura MG, Modibbo MH, Ibeabuchi MI. Estimation of length of humerus from its mophometry in a Nigerian population. Niger Hosp Q J 2013;23:135-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Mike IN, Okon ES, Olawale BA, Emmanuel AT, Priscilla ST, Abolaji RS. Regression equations for the estimation of radial length from its morphometry in South-West Nigerian population. J Exp Clin Anat 2015;14:51-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
  Medknow Journal  
6.
Akman D, Karakaþ P, lhal Bozkir MG. The morphometric measurements of humerus segments. Turk J Med Sci 2006;36:81-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Udhaya K, Sarala Devi KV, Sridhar J. Regression equation for estimation of length of humerus from its segments: A South Indian Population Study. J Clin Diagn Res 2011;5:783-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Anas IY, Esomonu UG. Femoral angle of inclination in the adult Hausa Ethnic Group of Nigeria. J Anat Sci 2009a; 2:24-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Anas IY, Esomonu UG. Anthropometric study of the proximal femur of the Adult Hausa Ethnic Group in Nigeria. Niger J Basic Clin Sci 2009b; 1:46-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Anas IY, Esomonu UG, Zagga AD. Prediction of stature of Hausa Ethnic Group using hand length and breadth. J Med Trop 2010;12:30-2.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Modibbo MH, Ojo SA, Magaji MG, Esomonu UG. Estimation of stature in Hausa Neonates of Kano, Nigeria using anthropometric measurements of weight, foot length, and foot breadth. BEST J 2012;9:67-73.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Esomonu UG, Ijomone OM, Mba C, Oranusi A. Estimation of stature using arm span length amongst Bekwara ethnic group of Cross River State, Nigeria. Ann Bioanthropol 2015;3:55-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
  Medknow Journal  
13.
Lukpata PU, Ojim EO, Esomonu UG, Okori SO, Egwu AO, Ude R. Stature estimation from hand dimensions in Bekwarra Ethnic Group of Cross River State, Nigeria. Int J Sci Technol 2015;3:267-70.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Lukpata PU, Esomonu UG, Ogan CA, Tessy EO. Estimation of stature from some selected cephalofacial parameters among teenage indigenes of Ogoja local government area Cross River State. Br J Med Med Res 2016;12:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Martin R. Textbook of Anthropology In Systematic Presentation With Special Reference To Anthropological Methods For Students, Medical and Research Travelers. Vol. 2. Jena, Germany: Gustav Fischer; 1928. p. 580.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Buikstra JE, Ubelaker DH. Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. (Report Number 44). Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archaeological Survey; 1994. p. 218.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Williams PL, Warwick R, Dyson M, Bannister LH. Skeletal System. In: Grays Anatomy 37th ed. London: Churchill Living Stone; 1995. p. 601-12.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Krici Y, Ozan H. Determination of sex from the tibia of adult Turkish cadavers. Kaibogaku Zasshi 1999;45:537-43.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Antonova E, Le TK, Burge R, Mershon J. Tibia shaft fractures: Costly burden of nonunions. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2013;14:42.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Pelin IC, Duyar I. Estimating stature from tibia length: A comparison of methods. J Forensic Sci 2003;48:708-12.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Akhlaghi M, Sheikhazadi A, Khosravi N, Pournia Y, Saberi Anary SH. The value of the anthropometric parameters of the tibia in the forensic identification of the Iranian population over the age of 20. J Forensic Leg Med 2011;18:257-63.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Bokariya P, Sontakke B, Waghmare JE, Tarnekar A, Tirpude BH, Shende MR. The anthropometric measurements of tibia. J Indian Acad Forensic Med 2012;34:322-3.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Krogman WM, Iscan MY. The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine. 2nd ed. USA: Springfield, Charles C. Thomas; 1986.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Trotter M, Gleser GC. A re-evaluation of estimation of stature based on measurements of stature taken during life and of long bones after death. Am J Phys Anthropol 1958;16:79-123.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Lundy JK, Feldesman MR. Revised equations for estimating living statures from long bones of the South African Negro. S Afr J Sci 1987;83:54-5.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Trotter M, Gleser GC. Estimation of stature from long bones of American Whites and Negroes. Am J Phys Anthropol 1952;10:463-514.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Hoppa RD, Gruspier KL. Estimating diaphyseal length from fragmentary subadult skeletal remains: Implications for palaeodemographic reconstructions of a southern Ontario ossuary. Am J Phys Anthropol 1996;100:341-54.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Ross AH, Konigsberg LW. New formulae for estimating stature in the Balkans. J Forensic Sci 2002;47:165-7.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Iscan MY. Forensic Anthropology of sex and body size. Forensic Sci Int 2005;147:107-12.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Scheuer L. Application of osteology to forensic medicine. Clin Anat 2002;15:297-312.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Petersen HC. On the accuracy of estimating living stature from skeletal length in the grave and by linear regression. Int J Osteoarchaeology 2005;15:106-14.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Simmons T, Jantz RL, Bass WM. Stature estimation from fragmentary femora: A revision of the Steele method. J Forensic Sci 1990;35:628-36.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Mysorekar VL, Verma PK, Mandedkar AN, Sarmat TC. Estimation of stature from parts of bones – Lower end of femur and upper end of radius. Med Sci Law 1980;20:283-6.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Mysorekar VR, Nandedkar AN, Sarma TC. Estimation of stature from parts of ulna and tibia. Med Sci Law 1984;24:113-6.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Mandela P, Misiani M, Ogeng'o J, Obimbo M, Gikenye G. Estimation of the length of the tibia from dimensions of the distal articular surfaces of the tibia in adult Kenyans. Int J Healthc Biomed Res 2013;1:250-7.  Back to cited text no. 35
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2193    
    Printed17    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded198    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]