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 Table of Contents  
BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 163-165

To Commemorate the 100th Year Anniversary of Forensic Science Education in China: A Brief Review of the Lives and Achievements of Forensic Science Pioneers from Zhejiang Province


1 Department of Forensic Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University; Institute of Forensic Science, Wenzhou Medical University Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, China
2 Department of Forensic Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University; Institute of Forensic Science, Wenzhou Medical University Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, ; Forensic Medical Management Services, Nashville, Tennessee, USA, China

Date of Web Publication27-Nov-2015

Correspondence Address:
Feng Li
Forensic Medical Management Services, 850 R. S. Gass Blvd, Nashville, Tennessee - 37216
China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2349-5014.167231

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  Abstract 

Looking back at modern China's 100-year history of forensic science education, we have found a number of forensic science pioneers from the Zhejiang Province who have made historic contributions to forensic science education. This paper briefly reviews the lives and achievements of these pioneers in chronological order. They include Song-Ming Xu, Ji-Zu Wang, Lv-Gao Chen, Jin-Chang Zhu, Ying-Han Xu, Mei-Yun Wu, Jia-Zhen Zhu, Guang-Zhao Huang, Zhan-Pei Zheng, and Shi-Xian Chen. History is only worth writing about if it teaches us about the future. This historical review sets examples for both current and future forensic pathologists to learn from the contributions of these pioneers.

Keywords: Contributions, education, forensic, history, Zhejiang


How to cite this article:
Yu LS, Fan YY, Han JG, Li XB, Ye Gh, Feng XP, Liao Y, Xu CQ, Bao QY, Li F. To Commemorate the 100th Year Anniversary of Forensic Science Education in China: A Brief Review of the Lives and Achievements of Forensic Science Pioneers from Zhejiang Province. J Forensic Sci Med 2015;1:163-5

How to cite this URL:
Yu LS, Fan YY, Han JG, Li XB, Ye Gh, Feng XP, Liao Y, Xu CQ, Bao QY, Li F. To Commemorate the 100th Year Anniversary of Forensic Science Education in China: A Brief Review of the Lives and Achievements of Forensic Science Pioneers from Zhejiang Province. J Forensic Sci Med [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Sep 15];1:163-5. Available from: http://www.jfsmonline.com/text.asp?2015/1/2/163/167231

Wenzhou Medical University was founded in August 1958, but its history can be traced back to the Zhejiang Specialty Medical School in 1912. Part of Zhejiang Medical College was moved from Hangzhou to Wenzhou in 1958 to become Zhejiang Second Medical College. Based on its location, it was renamed Wenzhou Medical College shortly afterward. In 2013, its name was changed to Wenzhou Medical University. In the past 100 years, Zhejiang has made tremendous contributions to and achievements in forensic science education in modern China. A number of forensic science pioneers have emerged from Zhejiang.

In 1915, the Ministry of Education of the Republic of China published Medical School Rules. Zhejiang Medical School adopted those rules and developed curricula including judicial medicine and judicial chemistry, which were later renamed as forensic science and forensic chemistry, the terms still in use today. At the same time, the discipline of forensic medicine was established in Zhejiang Medical College and Beijing Medical College, which were the first settings of forensic medicine in southern and northern China, respectively. Forensic science education at those two schools has played an important role in the development of modern forensic science in China.

From 1929 to 1935, the Zhejiang Specialty Medical School established forensic classes, enrolling graduate students from medicine and pharmaceutical science to further study forensic medicine for an additional six months before being appointed as forensic specialists in provincial district courts.

Song-Ming Xu [1],[3] (1890-1991) was born in Xinchang County, Zhejiang Province. In 1914, he was admitted to the Kyushu Imperial University School of Medicine in Japan. After graduation in 1919, he returned to China and became a professor at the Beijing Specialty Medical School, which at the time was the first Western-style medical school in China. He later created the first department of pathology in the country and served as the chairman of the department. He is widely considered the father of modern pathology in China. He later sent Dr. Ji Lin, an assistant professor at the time, to study forensic medicine in Germany. After receiving his doctorate degree in Germany, Dr. Lin returned to China and, with strong support from Dr. Xu, he created the first department of forensic medicine in China, the Department of Forensic Medicine at the Beiping University College of Medicine. In 1932, Professor Lin became the director of the Research Institute of Forensic Medicine at the Ministry of Justice, and in 1935, he returned to become a professor and the chairman of the Department of Forensic Medicine at the Beiping University College of Medicine. In 1952, Dr. Xu became the first president of the People's Health Publishing House and then the editorial director of the Chinese Medical Association. In 1956, he became the editor-in-chief of the Chinese Medical Journal.

Ji-Zu Wang [2] (1905-1976) was admitted to Zhejiang Provincial Specialty School of Medicine and Pharmacy in 1925 and graduated in 1929. He spent about six months, February-July 1929, taking special courses in forensic medicine in the high court of Zhejiang. In 1933, he was admitted to the Institute of Forensic Medicine founded by Professor Ji Lin as a research fellow and was also involved in the editing of Forensic Monthly, the first publicly circulated journal of forensic medicine. In 1951, the Ministry of Health authorized Nanjing Central University College of Medicine to open the first session of the national advanced forensic workshop for teachers, which was initially hosted by Professor Ji Lin and later by Professors Kang-Yi Huang and Ming-Ju Huang after Professor Lin's death. Professor Wang was a professor in the workshop, which trained the first batch of forensic teachers who would later establish mandatory forensic classes in other medical schools throughout the country. Professor Wang devoted his whole life to the field of forensic science and had especially unique expertise in forensic trauma and questioned document examination. He made many distinguished contributions to the development of modern forensic science in China.

Lv-Gao Chen (1911-1996) was born in Yiwu City, Zhejiang Province. In 1937, he graduated from the Shanghai Institute of Forensic Medicine, Nanjing Ministry of Justice. In August 1949, he was offered a professorship at the Department of Pathology of Zhejiang University. In 1952, after reorganization of schools and departments, he was appointed as chairman and professor of the Department of Pathology at the Zhejiang College of Medicine. He authored multiple monographs, including Anatomy of Forensic Pathology.

Jin-Chang Zhu (1924-2013) was born in Linhai County, Zhejiang Province. He was admitted to the Department of Medicine at the Zhejiang College of Medicine in 1946 and was offered an assistant professorship in the Department of Pathology at the Zhejiang College of Medicine in 1950. He moved to Wenzhou City in 1959 with the Zhejiang College of Medicine that would later become Wenzhou College of Medicine, and he created the college's Department of Pathology. He served in multiple positions including associate dean of the Wenzhou College of Medicine and professor and eventual chair of the Department of Pathology. Professor Zhu was heavily involved in pathology research and performed more than 1,000 autopsies and second autopsies. He was known as the "Ci Song" of modern Wenzhou because he helped solve multiple high-profile and mysterious cases.

Ying-Han Xu [4] (1926-) was born in Xiao Shan City, Zhejiang Province. He graduated from the Zhejiang College of Medicine in 1952. After he attended the first session of the National Advanced Forensic Workshop for Teachers in 1953, hosted by Professor Ji Lin, he returned to his alma mater. He served multiple positions in the Department of Pathology at the Zhejiang Medical University, including professor and chairman of the department. He was also a member of the Chinese National Committee for Forensic Medical Education of the Ministry of Education and a guest research fellow of the Institute of Forensic Sciences of the Ministry of Justice. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, he gave lectures on forensic pathology to the attendees of multiple workshops sponsored by the Zhejiang Medical University. He authored multiple monographs, including Forensic Toxicology, Anatomy of Forensic Pathology and Practical Forensic Pathology.

Mei-Yun Wu [6] was born in 1926 in Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province. She graduated from the Department of Medicine in the First Shanghai College of Medicine in 1952. After she attended the first session of the National Advanced Forensic Workshop for Teachers in 1953, she was assigned to work in the formal Sichuan College of Medicine. She has had multiple professional appointments, including professor of the Department of Forensic Medicine at the Huaxi (Western China) Medical University, acting member of the Chinese National Committee for Forensic Medical Education at the Ministry of Education, consultant of the National Forensic Research Association for Higher Education in the Forensic Sciences, and deputy editor-in-chief and English editor of the Chinese Journal of Forensic Medicine. In the early 1950s, she hosted multiple nationwide workshops for forensic evidence sponsored by the Department of Public Safety. Her research led the field of polymorphic genetic markers both domestically and internationally. She was also the editor-in-chief of the first and second editions of Forensic Evidence and Forensic Biology, published by the Ministry of Education.

Jia-Zhen Zhu [7] was born in 1928 in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province. He graduated from Shanghai Medical College in 1952. After he attended the first session of the National Advanced Forensic Workshop for Teachers in 1953, he was assigned to work at the Department of Forensic Medicine in the Sun Ye-Sen College of Medicine. He served in multiple positions, including professor in the Department of Forensic Medicine at the Sun Yet-Sen Medical University, vice president of the Sun Yet-Sen Medical University, chairman of the Department of Forensic Medicine at the Sun Yet-Sen Medical University, deputy director of the Professional Forensic Education Guidance Committee, deputy director of the Chinese Association of Forensic Medicine, associate editor of the Chinese Journal of Forensic Medicine, and editorial member of the journal Forensic Sciences International. His research article "Examination Method of Cardiac Conduction System, Age Change and Its Relationship with Sudden Death" was awarded the second-place prize by the Ministry of Health in 1995. He was the editor-in-chief for the first and second editions of Forensic Pathology, published by the Ministry of Education.

Guang-Zhao Huang [5] was born in Yuyao City, Zhejiang Province, in 1932. He graduated from the Department of Medicine at Wuhan Medical College and stayed on as a faculty member. After he attended the second session of the National Advanced Forensic Workshop for Senior Teachers, sponsored by the Ministry of Health, at China Medical University from 1955 to 1956, he returned to his alma mater to continue teaching, researching, and investigating postmortem death. He served in multiple positions, including executive director of the Chinese Association of Forensic Medicine, the first and second director of the Professional Committee of Chinese Forensic Pathology, an editorial member of the Chinese Journal of Forensic Medicine, and a member of the Chinese National Committee for Forensic Medical Education at the Ministry of Education. Currently he serves as a consultant for the Chinese Journal of Forensic Medicine and for the Research Committee of National Higher Education for Forensic Medicine. He was the editor-in-chief for the first three editions of Forensic Toxicology, published by the National Ministry of Education, and Comprehensive Works on Chinese Science and Technology on Criminology: Volume on Forensic Pathology. His article "Research on poisoning mechanism on crude cottonseed oil" was awarded the second-place prize from the National Scientific and Technological Progress in 1985.

Zhan-Pei Zheng was born in Cixi City, Zhejiang Province, in 1933. He graduated from the Second Medical University of Shanghai in 1958. He has served in multiple positions, including group leader of Forensic Psychiatry, Psychiatry Chapter of the Chinese Medical Association; chairman of the Shanghai Forensic Psychiatry Expert Committee; honorary research fellow of the Institute of Forensic Sciences of the Ministry of Justice; editorial member of Shanghai Psychiatry and the Journal of Forensic and legal Medicine; and contributing editor of Sichuan Mental Health. He has earned great prestige among psychiatrists both domestically and abroad, especially among forensic psychiatrists.

Shi-Xian Chen [8] was born in Rui-An City, Zhejiang Province, in 1936. He graduated from the Shanghai Institute of Forensic Sciences of the Ministry of Justice in 1955. He has served in multiple positions, including director of the Department of Forensic Medicine and chief forensic pathologist and professor at the Second Institute of the Ministry of Public Safety, vice president and secretary of the Chinese Forensic Medical Association, committee chairman of Forensic Traumatology and subcommittee chairman of Forensic Examination Technology of the Chinese National Standardization Committee of Forensic Science and Technology, and associate editor of the Chinese Journal of Forensic Medicine. His Forensic Osteology was the first monograph on traumatic injuries to bones and forensic anthropology. In addition, he was the editor-in-chief of Introduction to Forensic Odontology, Forensic Practice in China, and Forensic Anthropology for medical schools and was also involved in editing the China Encyclopedia and Criminal Law Dictionary. One of the major tasks of the Department of Forensic Medicine at the Second Institute of the Ministry of Public Safety was to undertake complicated, difficult, and high-profile cases around the country. Dr. Chen is often referred to as the Chinese Chief Medical Examiner.

1984 to 2002

In June 1984, the "Notice to Offer Courses of Forensic Medicine to Department of Medicine in Medical Schools" was promulgated by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. Wenzhou Medical College started to offer courses in forensic medicine in 1985 as mandatory and elective classes, and this continued for 17 years. Wenzhou Medical College entered a developmental period in forensic pathology, accepting cases from the public security system and procuratorial system. The health system commissioned 1,001 cases.

2002 to 2015

In 2002,[9],[10] Wenzhou Medical College started to admit undergraduate students to the Department of Forensic Medicine, which passed inspection by the Ministry of Education and became a member of the Education Advisory Committee of Forensic Medicine of the Ministry of Education. The department was authorized to award a graduate master's degree of basic medical science and forensic medicine in 2011. To date, nine classes have graduated from the Department of Forensic Medicine, which is currently the only school in Zhejiang Province to offer an undergraduate specialty in forensic medicine. Its graduates have spread throughout the country. In July 2002, the Center for Forensic Examination at Wenzhou Medical College opened its doors and became the first such center in the province. In 2011, the Center for Forensic Examination at Wenzhou Medical College was accredited by China National Accreditation Services (CNAS), becoming the first such accredited office in the province. In 2013, the Science and Technology Institute of Forensic Examination at Wenzhou Medical University was established.


  Acknowledgements Top


The authors are grateful to Professors Mei-Yun Wu and Guang-Zhao Huang for their review and revision.

 
  References Top

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